Wladyslaw Polakowski email@example.com
The theory of reconstruction of a mankind history.
The first chapter from the book "Mediterranean. Middle ages. Multivariancy". Popular-journal version of the article. This article has the earlier versions, which are represented at www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/teor-osnen.htm and www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/teor-osnen2.htm. Some moments in those articles are represented more comprehensively.
1.1. System of the most important concepts for reconstruction of a mankind history
1.2. Way of construction of the collection of the reconstruction versions and Recognition of the information with its help.
Instead of an epigraph
De emendatione temporum Iosephi Scaligeri Iulii Caesari f. (filii WP) Opus Novum Absolutum Pefectum Octo libris distinctum in quo preater ciuilum, mensium, annorum et epocharum cognitionem exactum, doctrinam accuratam, priscorum, temporum methodus, ac nuorum annorum forma, aut ipsorum veterum emendatio examinanmda et dignoscenda acute proponitur. 
(The approximately translation on English: About improvement of times Joseph Scaliger son Julian Scaliger work new absolute perfect on eight books broken, in which besides exact recognition of day, months, years and epoch, exact method of recognition of epoch in the new form of years, or same old improvement and the recognition is proposed (proponitur))
The complete name of the first work by Joseph Justus Scaliger, what in a science is known on the first lines of the title De emendatione temporum. Due to this, and also other works in the field of chronology he has left a trace in a world science as first chronologer (In more Detail about it in the first book of the author , in his report  and in two-volume edition of largest of nowadays alived expert on Scaliger professor of the Prinston university (USA) Anthony Grafton ).
The small introduction.
After an publishung of the first book of the author under the magnificent name " Tartar-Mongols. Eurasia. Multivariancy" , where a certain logic formalism was submitted, which put by the purpose a task of global reconstruction of a history of mankind, some reports were by the author made and some attempts of organization of discussions, including with the representatives of a traditional science are undertaken. As a rule, during these discussions of serious disputes and was not. On the part of the representatives of a traditional science had a place, as a rule, only ascertaining of that fact, that a history, actually, science in habitual sence for natural scientifists, isn't science.
At one time, when the author of this book has begun the researches in the field of chronology, it seemed, that the reconsideration of present chronology is a business not however scientific, however political. Now factors political, which based on the past with the purpose of upholding those or other interests, have remained. But on the foreground, as have shown results of discussions with experienced by the scientists, there was a factor scientific, academic: all the same to try to transform a history if not into a science exact, then in not so inexact. And only then, as the second step, to pass to questions of reconsideration existing conventional (word conventional in translation with English on not best Russian), or traditional chronology as though sounded. The author of the book from an appeal to such reconsideration would like the book and to begin.
As clearly follows from epigraph, of Scaliger's time has used a word "perfect", means, at him a certain representation about this perfection and was. In particular, about perfection from the numerical, mathematical point of view. Probably, two processes: developmnet of the most probable chronology and the development of bases of a history as sciences as is possible exacter will be held simultaneously.
So, now on the agenda stands so longwaiting for one, so undesirable and even painful for others both so entertaining and astonishing for the third process of reconsideration existing conventional to chronology both concept of a history of an antiquity and middle ages. The attempts are undertaken to look at the deepest past in a new fashion. On the basis of advanced achievements of natural sciences it is possible to undertake attempt of a reconstruction, or reconstruction, most authentic version of a picture of development of mankind. Thus already it will be possible to not pay serious attention to that chronological version of a history of mankind, which has come in a scientific circulation due to products by Ioachimus Fiorensis, Petrus Ioannis Olivi, Bernhard Guidonis, Martin Polonus and Joseph Just Scaliger and as the traditional version was fixed in it.
As a result of this reconstruction it will be possible to receive or one version, or some versions, and after reception of formal results already will be possible to begin them popularisation, and even their fixings as the monography, edition in Internet, even of the certain draft copy of the textbook of a history. Now group of the researchers tries to organize a certain project, which has the preliminary name "Encyclopedia. Chronology. Reconstruction".
Thus during the work the tolerant attitude to anyone without exception to a historical material will be shown. And as to results of work, they will be formulated not by a principle "so and any way differently", and at a level "to some probability" (result of application of probability methods).
Thus from the point of view of global genesis of humanitarian sciences there comes the very interesting moment. Determinismus, that is precise result of knowledge and prediction something, (and in application to research of an antiquity - the exact establishment of the various facts of the past, from the point of view of chronology, geography, Personalities etc.) is replaced by the probability methods, according to which to each event, each parameter of that or other event this or that will be put in conformity statistical probability. That is all expressions in a ton are "exact, "definitely" it is necessary to replace with expressions in a ton "most probably", and same expression in a negative ton of a type "it could not be", "it legend only", "it is a forgery", it will be necessary, accordingly to replace on softer: "most likely, it could not be", "probable, it's legend only", "the most probable, that it is a forgery" and so on.
(As the note: here it would be desirable to add, that by-parametrical representation of events is at all fiction of the author. If to trust von den Brinchen, (, page 2), yet Hugo from the St.Vistor closter, spoke about three categories of a narration: person, time and place. And Cassiodor (to which the years of life 485-580, to chansellorship of Theodorich the Great are attributed, and later the foundation of a closter, has told completely precisely: who will miss time, that will ship all in a gloom unpopularity - WP).
So, the application probability of methods can elementary be resulted in that result, that on an output of researches will be clear not one rigid version, but their collection. And those versions, which will enter this collection, will have not smaller chances of reliability, than traditional. At least, until, last source yet will not in light of the turned out versions of reconstruction be reconsidered.
And that the research of an antiquity and time spending in archives, libraries and archeological expeditions is not the most prestigious and not most paid employment, that moment, when last source will be considered, to depict very difficultly. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the author, during the certain long period in a historical science that picture should be observed, when on a working table of the researcher there would be not one, but several working versions of reconstruction.
For the sake of justice it is necessary to note, that that situation, when even experienced the researchers in a case for a long time of historical material, available in use, do not come to final (unequivocal) conclusions, is not for a historical science a rarity. Moreover, such gradually enters into rules of a good form. But such researchers, except for the researcher - alternativists, automatically use the chronological core of a world history, not so frequently reflecting about its not the best reliability. Though, however, from the certain moment to speak about not best reliability of some events of an antiquity and middle ages has become business standard.
To show the attitude to the given dogma, let's talk slightly about one event from a history of the ancient world, about which has written even the school textbook of a history: about a leaving from life Alexander Macedonian. According to the textbook of a history, he has left life per -323 years (is taken from Lopuchin , the table on last page), or in 323 about new era, as it referred to as in the textbooks of a history in the Soviet period, or per 323 years about common era (as about it is accepted to write in society circles in West). Or per 323 years up to Christ Birth (as it is accepted about it to speak in christian circles).
Let's imagine, that there is an ordinary lesson of a history at school/lecture in a higher educational institution on a history of the ancient world, on which there is going just about this event and its date. If the teacher will appear diligent, he thus by all means will mention, that generally, could be and differently, as the sources on the given theme not too reliable, besides dazzle by a variety. (Certainly, the another is possible also: that the teacher about it will tell not so or simply will hold back, therefore the schoolboy or student will have an impression, that there was all just how it reflected in the traditional version, and in any way differently). After that the natural image arises a question: if all could be differently, as is concrete differently. Then immediately is found out, that such question on the sence is artful and opens all methodological inconsistency of a present historical science at research of rather ancient periods, which is based rigid chronological determinismus (that is on unequivocal definition of dates at research of an antiquity).
So, methodological disadvantage of a present historical science would be showed that for the diligent researcher to receive the normal answer, at least a few satisfying his conscientiousness, to the mentioned question on date of Alexandder's Macedonian leaving from life, it is necessary slightly fluctuate the existing dogma. Both dogma deterministical and dogma chronological.
. By the way, Scaliger's date of a leaving from Alexander's life forced down with sense much: he very long reflected above on what year to carry his leaving from life, and on what - beginning of Seleucidi era. If Grafton to trust .
Alas, it so. As to methodology of a present science as a whole, it consists that the author of the book calls by a word singleversionity (may be another English word will be more passing) (one of displays determinism, which works under the slogan "so and in any way differently"). It when there is certain traditional standard (but, alas, hardly most authentic) chronological version, which automatically all material, which is passing to it/which it confirms, authentic. Thus all material, which does not passing to it, it calles, unfortunately, as legendary, for the laws of logic are those, that two one to another contradicting statements can not be true simultaneously. And the historian is farther which is armed with the traditional version up to teeth (just to this learn at schools and universities, and the issue of the development of this traditional chronological version excites him not so frequently), is engaged in the very simple business: by comparison of those data, which he(she) takes from sources, with this most traditional chronological version. Thus, alas, it very much frequently misses from a kind a task of a historical science, i.e. that task, with the purpose of which performance he(she) sat down study of the given sources (as, at least, it is formulated in the textbook of a history): to give the maximum detailed and maximum authentic description of the past (alas, such task does not coincide with tasks Musa of a history Clio - eulogy). A modern science, as it would be desirable hopes to the author of these lines, fortunately, has left far forward). And you see this the most most authentic description can easy leave from the viewpoint of chronology for frameworks of the traditional version ... Besides from the viewpoint of geography, from the viewpoint of personalities. And then can will be clear and other connection with sources ...
And this the most authentic description can easy leave from the viewpoint of chronology for frameworks of the traditional version... Besides from the viewpoint of geography, from the viewpoint Personalities. And then can be clear and other connection with sources...
The dialogue between the supporter of traditional school and researcher-alernativist very much frequently passes under such circumstances, when one appears in a role uneducated person (in one extreme case) and heresy-man (in the other extreme case)(the British/American slung words are more passing but the author don't know this slang). Is not excluded, the truth, neutral case, case of the arrogant clever, which also has noticed that they, experinted the historians-traditionalists have noticed long ago, but which, as against them, very much loves to shout about it in the ears of everyone and to speak on this basis about crisis in a historical science. And then the representative of traditional school is compelled to be put or in a role of the supporter of dogma, or in a role man which knows everything. Both and one, and another for a science reputation are harmful.
So, about the main task of a historical science: to give as the more complete and detailed description of a picture of the past is possible. About it there would be very desirable to write, then not lines from the textbook of a history emerge in memory, and aphorisms about a historical science and description tragicomical of the instructions, in which it very much frequently got. One quotation from Oscar Wilde "To give the accurate description of what never occurred is the inalienable privilege and proper occupation of the historian" costs too much ... (is resulted on Borchardt, , where it serves an epigraph of the whole book).
The author of this book is adjusted on reconsideration of the existing concept of an antiquity and middle ages from the viewpoint of chronology and everything, that from chronology will follow (in particular, of personalities) is rather resolute.
Alas, the history is a science politized, and the author of the book, if he will keep similar style, will be simple to risk to run in publicism. Nevertheless, he would like to note, that on a background not quite clear situation with axiomatic, system concepts of a history as sciences. Is not quite competent to lift questions on general character of certain world historical processes as a whole. Probably, at first it would be correct to raise the question about chronology, and only after that to try to speak about any generalized conclusions and global historical processes....
From the viewpoint of methodology of knowledge the author of these lines would use that methodology, which would allow to take into account all without exception of the party of business, all without exception variants of treatments of names and, as a consequence from here, facts. Thus there will be a certain logic complication of process of knowledge, during which not one variant would be taken into account, and a little, or it is a lot of. Therefore this method of knowledge the developer has named as a method, or logic formalism of a multivariancy.
Thus it would be desirable to remind, that as the historical fact within the framework of a stated formalism (in more detail - in  and ) the certain generalized concept refers to as which includes both statics the description something, and dynamics of the description. That is as a picture of a situation (statics), and historical event, which from the viewpoint of a formalism is defined as one-time change of parameters of the environmental world (dynamics).
Thus parameters of a narration could be all parties of a narration: who (subject), that (object), where (place), when (time), that happened and/or what had a place a picture situation (in the offer on these questions the predicate answers, and within the framework of our formalism it describes static and dynamic aspects of a narration), happened has taken place for what reason and/or with what purpose. Similarly all is submitted at I.Davidenko in "False beacons of a history " .
Fig. 1-1. Graphic representation of parameters of a narration
With recognition many from the described parameters the ambiguity in their recognition (for example, with names, in more detail - in  and ) could be observed, and would be the necessity with the purpose of observance of reliability up to the certain time to fix not one, and more, than one (several) interpretates of their recognition. Then variants of interpretates of the received information not one would turn out, and it is a lot of. Therefore such way of recognition of the world we could name as Multivariancy, and methodology of recognition, which on such way of recognition of the world is based, the author has named as methodology of Multivariancy. This methodology on the today's moment is put forward as a fruit of its development.
Small deviation: it is possible to consider the introduction to article as finished, and we with the reader smoothly pass to the first chapter, where briefly we shall tell the theory of reconstruction of a mankind history. In end of the foreword it would be desirable to tell, that the author of the book is absolutely free from a idea, that he will engage in excessive representation in black light of fruits of creativity Joseph Just Scaliger as author for this chronology of the final forms: you see on the title page of the work he has used a verb proponitur - has offered. Thus the author of this work only will try to lift a question, whether and it will be possible to offer something another and this will try at least a few serious level most another to offer.
1. Theory of reconstruction of a mankind history.
1.1. System of the most important concepts for reconstruction of a mankind history
Let's imagine the quotation from any of a source in the most general case:
With someone something somewhere at one time happened and/or thus such picture situation took place happened has taken place for any reason and/or with any purpose.
Considering already described procedure of formalization of the fact, its representation in dependence of parameters, we can easily reach a conclusion, that the display of the most objective consideration of the information from a source is not consideration of the information from a source as not of the facts as such, and as images of the facts. In more detail about it is in . Therefore such reflection of the fact in a source we shall name as an image of the fact, (or, for simplicity, fact taken from a source (necessary its origin from a source emphasizing)), and that fact, which reflection theoretically and could be this image the probable original.
One small moment. From stated clearly follows, that the recognition of the information has turned out not simply critical - it has turned out even formalized. Thus, we come to the important principle of Multivariancy - to a principle of recognition of the information contained in sources (let even considered(counted) documentary) not as the information documentary, and as the information, to proclaimed documentality and which reliability it is necessary to concern critically.
And one more small addition. At study of sources it is possible to encounter two similar facts, (or fact image), which could have one source, or one probable original. In such case such facts (personality) we could name as the mutual duplicates (such is in ).
(As the small note: time the definition to such concepts is given, as the duplicate and probable original, would be not bad think above such concept, as the original historical person, for such concept constantly arises in discussions. Thus theoretically it is possible:
- Presence of the duplicates at the given character of the chronicle in other epoch
- Mistake in dating his life caused by the incorrect information from a source
In light of the told: whether such concept, how is possible to enter the original historical person? Probably, it is possible. But thus every time should be emphasized his chronological reliability. (For Example, chronologically original historical person - WP)
So, the definitions to two essentially to important concepts of Multivariancy - concept of an image of the fact and concept of the probable original are given. We go further.
Any information by the man is perceived from two points of view: from the viewpoint of contents, and viewpoint of its message, that is what way and by whom it was informed or whence it was gathered. From the viewpoint of logic of similar recognition (which is described both in , and in ), any fact gathered from a source, can be described by parameters as semantic, and source. Thus semantic, or the physical parameters of the fact, answer time and collection of names describing a place and a personality (in more detail - in  and ), and source - for what way and by whom such information was transferred.
As to contents of the information, the author of the book is long on this question to stop will not be, as this question that in , that in  is rather detailed covered.
As to the moments of knowledge of the fact connected with sources, them it is possible to share on two groups: external and internal. The external moments describe those circumstances, at which the source has appeared. They conditionally can be represented on the circuit 1-2.
The circuit 1-2. The circuit of external occurrence of a source
As to the contents of a source, it, from the viewpoint of character of the message of the information, as the facts, informed by the author of a source is direct, and facts, which it has informed with the reference on other persons, which it has named as the story-tellers. Thus the image of the direct information can be both obvious, and latent.
Fig. 1-3. The elementary circuit of a source
The Fig. 1-4 Circuits of a source, in there is the direct speech, reference or indirect indications to the undirect character of a narration
Represented on figure 1-3 two-gradualnesses of reception of the information from narrator can be easily generalized on a lot of steps in case of presence of a plenty of internal images of the story-tellers - or simply plenties of the references. (the Case of multigradualness is not reflected in figure, but it is easy for representing, if to itself to present an average line of blocks from figure 1-3 "stratified" on a horizontal on a certain quantity of small blocks). The same picture will take place, if on a course of a narration will take place a little mentioned (not latent) story-tellers with the references on them.
At multigradualness of such type the mention of a final source of the information is interesting: at the obvious references (or obviously expressed direct speech) he is seen obviously. (The example with historical tradition accepted in some Arabian sources Spins in language as at the author about these sources the impression after certain acquaintance with them was created: "It was told By First with the reference to Second, which has stated Third, which has transferred the message Fourth with a certain mention Fifth etc."). At presence of the latent sources of the information such direct story-teller turns out as result of a solution of a certain logic riddle. These people, which at the end are direct describer, eyewitnesses of events, W.W.Bolotow in "Church history" such  narrators named significantly and with the respect - ISTOR).
Small result. In case of presence of the certain number latent narrators depending on a degree of their revealing those or other interpretates of the facts contained in a source and a source in are probable as a whole. Thus, naturally, there can be some versions of reconstruction of a picture of events and businesses as a whole. That situation, when is real at one narrative text has a place one macro-author and certain quantity of the microauthors, in literary criticism refers to as menipeia. Largest in Russian language space of the developers of the theory menipeia is Alfred Barkow, which has presented this of the theory menipeia in article  "The Theory of the literature, semiotic, philosophical aesthetics", which is exposed in Internet on www.literarytheory.narod.ru
Such methodology of recognition can be applied also to sources, which completely are considered as mystery or traditionally are ranked to isoterical. Using described methodology of recognition, at the first stage it is possible to present a little theoretically of their probable interpretates and solutions. Thus the separate solutions would appear corner stones for the various versions of reconstruction. There is too hard work with them within the framework of traditional methodology of recognition of a historical science, which is afraid of any logic complication, and it is rather easy within the framework of stated methodology of Multivariancy, which requires precise fixing of each of the versions of reconstruction and fixes their greatest possible quantity. However, this small running forward, and now it would be desirable to return to our two ways of recognition: to ways of construction of the versions of reconstruction without a capture individual, separately taken fact-interpretations for the versions of reconstruction and without those.
1.2. Way of construction of the collection of the reconstruction versions and recognition of the information with its help.
(Fine font or as the note: this chapter is the second edition of work of the author of these lines  "Theoretical bases of reconstruction of a mankind history on the basis of an available historical material", which is exposed in Internet on www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/teor-osn.htm. It was by last chapter of his book  "Tatar-Mongols. Eurasia. Multivariancy". The author of the book addresses to the reader to advice to familiarize also with it, as in this book are mentioned and the rather interesting questions) are advanced.
Let's now from system of concepts proceed to performance of a task of reconstruction of a mankind history.
From the viewpoint of the purpose it is necessary to note, that, if that is going about wide interpretation of the separate facts, on an output we will have, obviously, not one, and some versions. That is there will be going not about one version of reconstruction, and about several. And their collection, which has turned out in a result, we shall name collection of the reconstruction versions.
If, using methodology of multivariancy to begin performance of the described task, that is reconstructions of the most authentic picture of the past from the viewpoint of chronology, geography and personalities by a principle of Multivariancy, we should note, that from the viewpoint of methodology of process of reconstruction there are two ways, which are differed by complexity and amount of information.
First them is connected them that we shall together on a chronological scale connect only separate facts and/or fact-interpretations. Then we will have problem of too great a plenty reconstruction version.
We can solve this technical problem, going on other ways, as follows: we can enter concept of the elementary sequence two fact-interpretations, which are taken (for simplification) from a material created in one chronological tradition. Such elementary sequence two fact-interpretations we shall name as the virtual chronicle.
After introduction of such concept, the concept of the virtual chronicle all process of reconstruction is reduced to unique reception: we take the facts from the chronicles (in this moment they fresh, extensible). Next we create and we fix fact-interpretations (and fact-interpretations, as against of the fresh facts from sources, already solid, nonextensible, with this purpose the concept fact-interpretations and was entered). Next we build of them the virtual chronicles, further we create the probable originals of the virtual chronicles, and already is concrete from the probable originals of the virtual chronicles create reconstruction version. (Thus is attention - it is very desirable after each of fixed events to fix a picture situation, which would turn out between this event and previous). Reconstruction version should be, it is desirable, as it is possible more global. Bei them is very desirable to have in the reconstruction version after each one event to have the picture of situation. So the version of reconstruction will have the next view: Event - Picture of Situation - Event - Picture of Situation and so on. (Figure 1-5).
Figure 1-5. The sipmlest view of the reconstruction version
After that all isolated facts (as what can be connected in the virtual chronicles, and what in such virtual chronicles to connect are impossible) it is possible to compare to each of reconstruction version, to receive thus its estimation and rating. (Attention! There it's the Corn, Seed of Multivariancy - each of the versions is necessary to estimate!). A question of a formalism of every possible comparisons and comparisons, in the most general case, we shall illuminate in this article chapter a little below, for now we shall represent process of construction reconstruction version schematically.
So, we take that the historians call a historical material. The historical material is the certain generalized concept, which from itself includes contents of all archives, libraries, museums. The annals, manuscripts, various acts (letter, decisions of authorities, art works) here enters, and also something created by hands of the man, that is that refers to as artefacts. Are available, that is important, also the data of natural sciences (physics, economy, geology, chemistry, various engineering).
It would be desirable to pay attention to one fine formal moment. If to be set by a issue of formalization of efforts, and is more concrete from what parameter to begin reconstruction, very quickly it is possible to reach a conclusion, that such parameter will be just time, instead of any of names or from verbal parts of a narration (as it is shown in  and ). Still, as to time, it would be desirable to note, as in  and in  the circuit of a perusal of time specified in the document is precisely reproduced. There is precisely marked, that in case of the precise indication of time as a certain sequence of graphic marks read as of figure, there is a certain discrete collection of times of the probable originals, and in case of absence of the indication of time as such there is practically continuous spectrum of the probable originals.
Further. At the construction of the versions of reconstruction there will be a basic problem of the combinatorics, the problem of the very large number of the versions. From this two basic logic conclusions follow:
1. As a material for reconstruction of unit of the given material it is best to take as it is possible more extended in time, that is the primary material of reconstruction should be as it possible more long.
2. There would be not bad to develop and to introduce principles of optimum reduction reconstruction version.
As to principles of optimal reduction reconstruction version, here it is not necessary to stop on it in detail, as they are formulated in  and . Only in brief we shall repeat them:
1. Principle of a continuity
2. Principle of originality
3. Principle antiantification
1. Principle of a continuity,
Which in application to the large number of the versions of reconstruction would consist in that in the following:
If at the given version of reconstruction there are temporary intervals (lacuna), which are not described by the historical documents, such version is improbable.
This principle can easily be generalized to a geographical attribute, that would be important for reconstruction of a history of separate territories:
If at the given version of reconstruction of the given territory (given community of the people) there are temporary intervals, which are not described by the historical documents, such version is improbable.
2. Principle of originality
If it to formulate briefly, it says, that is improbable, that one the temporary interval describing events, holding in one any territory, was described by two independent chronicles with the absolute different characters.
3. Principle antiantification
As a rule, the question of datings of separate events in a world history was not deprived of a political shade, and the disputes on a theme " that ancient " arose not so seldom. Therefore very much frequently separate events were described by obviously earlier dates, rather than they took place actually.
As if to a return situation, that is when the events early were dated by dates later, they practically were not observed. Therefore author of clause will venture to formulate a principle antiantification:
Improbable those versions of reconstruction are, when in a result the probable original of the connected sequence of events (chronicle) will lay chronologically before the image of this sequence of events reflected in the chronicle.
Let's return to practice of reconstruction. In practice we take one extended chronicle, other extended chronicle etc., and this all - first of all. And eventually we shall receive a certain combination of the probable originals of these chronicles (about certain subtleties of a formalism hardly below), to which from the mathematic-logical viewpoint it would be very convenient to compare those one-time the facts, which undertake not from the chronicles, and, if such facts (fact-interpretations) it is good given reconstruction version corresponded, they in it automatically entered.
So: the plan of reconstruction. From a material contained in narratives and sequences of the facts, the virtual chronicles (with this purpose narratives are under construction the temporary blocks) are broken into most convenient for the reference with them. The probable originals of these virtual chronicles further are under construction, further of the probable originals are under construction reconstruction version. Then with the purpose of an estimation of the turned out versions there is a comparison from the turned out thus versions with the various facts (fact-interpretations).
Here it would be very desirable to note, that such two-stagity of the construction of the human history reconstruction versions has one more interesting display: so we could each of the versions estimate with those by isolated facts, about which there is no mention in written sources. To those facts it is possible to attribute the facts delivered by natural sciences, and also already mentioned here artefacts. Thus, we would receive a certain scientific value, certain solvency, or certain rating of an estimation by this or that reconstruction version. That is, we receive the following: by comparison reconstruction version with the facts from written sources we receive both addition to reconstruction version, and material for rating estimations, and by comparison with artifacts and data of natural sciences we would receive rating estimations.
(As the note: one the spice moment. It is possible all stated to present as brief of records as formulae, which very much frequently (moreover, as a rule) are used in the textbooks on mathematics. But: with the purpose of greater popularization the editions the author it will not make).
And already after that from global reconstruction version it is possible already to pass to a history of that or other period, that or other phenomenon, this or that district. By one a word - to local reconstruction.
All process of reconstruction for the stronger presentation is represented on two circuits, figure 1-6 and figure 1-7. They are differed by the image of a starting point of consideration of a historical material. It can be considered in two points of view, as it is represented on the figure 1-6, or with one, as shown in the figure 1-7.
The figure 1-6. Recognition of the past through a historical material by creation collection of the reconstruction versions.
At the first stage all historical material is took, including written sources (which in turn undertakes, include and legendary material, fixed on a paper: myths, fairy tale), artefacts and data of natural sciences (so it is shared on an origin). At it is looked from two points of view: from the viewpoint of traditional division into the certificates(acts) and narratives and from the viewpoint of a formalism, developed by us, of Multivariancy. For this reason in the top row of blocks the block with an inscription "the historical material" is represented twice, and, if there would be an opportunity to make the volumetric image, the image in volume was made.
So, on an origin this material (as it is reflected in the left part of the circuit) is traditionally subdivided into written sources and artefacts. As to character of the information, taken from it, from it can be taken, generally, as the facts, of which it is possible to make the virtual chronicles (or, as it is possible still to tell, connectable the facts), and those facts, which can not on the nature enter structure of these virtual chronicles (for example, data of archeology or data of natural sciences).
On the figure 1-6 in the right part, behind a vertically dashed line, separately field just connectable of the facts is not represented, it is, speaking mathematically, addition of a field connectable of all facts on a field of all facts (that is these those facts, which belong to a field of all facts, but thus do not belong to a field connectable of the facts). Graphically: the area, which is inside the greater rectangular, but outside smaller.
Further (as already it was marked above) we receive from connectable of the facts the virtual chronicles (Attention! On the circuit the virtual chronicles are represented as received directly from a historical material (right part of the circuit), and from results of its logic processing (left part of the circuit)). Irrespective of it from the separately taken facts it turn out separately taken fact-interpretations.
Further from the virtual chronicles we receive the probable originals, further we build of the probable originals reconstruction version. Further we turned out reconstruction version compare to those by the facts (fact-interpretations), which have turned out both with connectable, and with nonconnectable in the separate virtual chronicles of a historical material. And further we already can range the obtained reconstruction version on a rating, on sources, on which they base and to build local reconstruction version.
More evidently it also is more formalized is represented on the figure 1-7.
The figure 1-7. Recognition of the past through a historical material by creation collection of the reconstruction versions. A more formalized view.
It would be desirable to pay attention, that from blocks of the acts and narratives downwards go till two small pointers, and from artefacts and from the given natural sciences (on the circuit they in abbreviated form: Nat.) there is one, as from artefacts, and from the given natural sciences with the large work the facts and fact-interpretations with precise given internal distance can be taken between separate by themselves, which could lie down in a basis of the virtual chronicle.
Here it would be desirable to enter one slung expression. Concerning to collection of the reconstruction versions it will be very convenient to use expression "the left part", and concerning to all available historical material, accordingly, "the right part".
About last stages, which are represented in the bottom part of the circuit, in more detail: on them we, already having collection of the versions of reconstruction, can estimate each of sources (and each of the characters of sources) in light of those or other versions of reconstruction. As the following stage we can of all their versions of reconstruction choose optimum and to try to learn in its light separate questions. We can according to this, optimum version of reconstruction to estimate all sources and to try to carry out certain local reconstruction (on the period, interesting for us, place, name, historical person etc.).
To finish clause it would be desirable by ascertaining of the fact, laying on a surface, that the virtual chronicles and their probable originals can easily turn out from large available historical narratives , in particular, historical chronicles. The elementary chronicles thus can be considered without preliminary processing, and here it is desirable for compilation thus as it is possible in more detail to break on those authors, but which there are references. Thus, whole compilat (the compound chronicle) will be submitted as collection of separately taken elementary blocks. Such reception we shall name as a technique of block splitting. It repeatedly will be applied further.
In end of the given article it would be desirable to note, that the results of application of the above described technique of reconstruction of a world history to a history of Europe for the period from zero year up to the end of a late middle ages are submitted in work of the author of the book "The chronological concepts of a history of Europe for the period from a beginning of common era up to a late middle ages following from latinlanguage of sources. Results of application of a formalism of Multivariancy" (). This work was included as one of the chapters in the first book of the author under the name "Tatar-Mongols. Eurasia. Multivariancy" (). It is exposed in Internet on home page of the author on www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/chronkonc.htm.
Most interesting here that after construction of collection of the versions of reconstruction of Europe becomes a question of construction of the left part, that is collection of the versions of reconstruction for a world history as a whole (it would be, at least, not bad), as the stated logic formalism was developed specially for this task.
So, brief conclusion of this article. The plan of actions of any researcher of an antiquity and middle ages (that is that time interval is given, on which could take place of dating only doubtful) not only on a case of presence of the unique traditional version of a history.
May 2003. Transalted in English June 2003.
1.Lopuchin. Interpretating Bible or Comentaries to all books of Sy.Scripture Old and New Testaments. V.1-12. Edition of the Lopuchin's descendants. St.-Peterburg. 1904-1913. (in russian)
2. Von den Brincken, Anne-Dorothee. Historische Chronologie des Abendlandes. Kalendarreformen und Jahrtausendrechnungen. Kohlhammer, 2000.
3. Borchardt Frank. German antiquity in renaissance myth. Baltimor and London, 1971.
4. Wladyslaw Polakowski. The theoretical base of the reconstruction of the human history on the base of the exisiting historical material. Internet www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/teor-osnen.htm.
5. Wladyslaw Polakowski. Tatar-Mongols. Eurasia. Multivariancy. M. Forum Printing House. 2002. (in russian)
6. Bolotow W.W. The church history. M. 1994 (in russische)
7. Alfred Barkow. The theory of the literature, semiotik, philosophical estetics. Internet. www.literarytheory.narod.ru
(There is English version of his works too) 8. Wladyslaw Polakowski. The chronological circuits of the Europe history for the period form beginnig of new era till to the late Middle Ages, following form the latine language sources. The result of application of the formalism of the multivariancy. Internet. www.wladmoscow.narod.ru/chronkoncen.htm (Englisch Version)
9. Scaliger and problems of the chronology development. The wall report on the third conference of the civilization fond. Moscow. December, 2001 (in russische).
(in russian) 10. Grafton Anthony. Joseph Justus Scaliger. A study in the History of Classical Scholarship. V. II. Historical chronology. Clarendon press. Oxford. 1993.
11. Scaliger Iosephus Iustus. De emendatione temporum Iosephi Scaligeri. Francofurti 1593.
12. I.V.Davidenko. False beacons of a history. M. 2002 (in russian).