Most prominent Poles of Russia

Here are shown the names of those persons of a Polish nationality which one was living for the long time on the territory of Russia and have kept a certain track in a Russia history, science, arts, policy and industry, persons with the indisputable Polish roots and persons, which one by and large themselves felt by bound with Russian culture. In restricted quantity are shown the policies and commanders.

In case the given here information will show to the reader too narrow, or to the contrary, someone from the listed persons representating of the given nation is ranked bodily vainly or in general he isn't worhthy of mentioning, we ask to inform about it the author having clicked here.


CZEKAN Stanislaw
GILAROWSKI Wlodziemierz
HANECKI Jakub (Jakub Fuerstenberg)
JANOWSKI-GOGOL Nikolaj > Gogol.
KATHRINE I >Skowronska Marta
KOTWICZ Wlodzimierz
KRUPSKA Nadzieja
LUBIECKI Franciszek
LUBLINSKI (Motosznowicz) Julian
MALEWICZ Kazimierz
NENCKI Marceli
ORLOWSKI Aleksander
OSTERWA Juliusz (Maluszek)
TURSKI Kaspar Michael
WOLF Boleslaw Maurycy
ZAPASZNY Mieczyslaw

BAUDOIN DE COURTENAY Jan (1845-1929), Russian and Polish linguist, corresponding member Petersburg Acabemy of sciences (1897). Founder of the Kazan linguistic school. First has justified the theory of phonemes and phonetic alternations(sequences), was differentiated idachronismus and synchronism, considering them in continuous connection. Has rendered clout on development of general linguistics. Works on slavonic linguistics, Russian and Polish languages. Has edited and has supplemented "The explanatory dictionary of the living greatrussian language" by W.Dal (3-rd publishings, 1903-09; 4-th publishings, 1912-14).

BOGDANOWICZ Karol (1864-1947), geologist. On a parentage the Pole. In 1901-17 worked in Geologic committee in Russia. Researches in the south of an European part of Russia, in Central Asia, Siberia. Since 1919 in Poland.

BULGARIN Faddei (1789-1859) (born Jan Tadeusz Krzysztof Bulharyn, Grodno, 24 June/5 July 1789) was named for Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a friend of his father. His father Benedykt participated in the uprising of April 1794 and was exiled to Siberia. Bulgarin and his mother moved to St. Petersburg in 1798. After serving in the Russian army at Friedland and Finland, Bulgarin joined Polish forces fighting for Napoleon in 1811, first in Spain and later in Russia. He returned to Russia in 1819 and was active in the Polish community in St. Petersburg. Bulgarin is known mostly for his novel "Ivan Vyzhigin" and his editorial work on "Severnaja pchela", as well as for being a literary adversary of Pushkin. Yet as Belinskii admitted, without Bulgarin, people such as he (Belinskii) would not have had an audience, since the popularity of Bulgarin's works in the 1830s helped to create a reading public in Russia.

CHODASIEWICZ Wladyslaw (1886-1939), Russian poet. Since 1922 in emigration. In verses (accumulator cells "By a grain ", 1920, "Heavy lira ", 1922; cycle"European night ", 1927), combining tradition of Russian classic poetry with мироощущением of the person 20 century, tragical conflict by free human throttle also of world, hostile to her, tendency to overcome disruptiveness of consciousness in harmony of creativity. The biography of Derzhawin (1931), book of the articles "About Pushkin"(1937), book of memories "Nekropol" (1939).

CENKOWSKI Leon (1822-87), Russian botanist, protistologist and bacteriologist, corresponding member Petersburg Academy of sciences (1881). Investigated a history of an ontogenesis of inferior plants and animal. Developed performance about genetic unity vegetative and fauna. Has offered methods of obtaining of an effective anthracic vaccine.

CIOLKOWKSI Konstanty (1857-1935), Russian scientist and inventor, основоположник of a modern astronautics. Works in area aero- and rocket dynamics, theory of an airplane and airship. In childhood almost completely has lost audition and since 14 years studied independently; in 1879 extern has passed examination on a rank of the teacher, all life taught physics and mathematician (since 1892 in Kaluga). For the first time has justified possibility of using of rockets for the interplanetary messages, has indicated rational paths of development of an astronautics and rocket manufacturing, has found a number of the relevant engineering solutions of a design of rockets and liquid rocket engine. The technical ideas of the Ciolkovsky find a use at creation of space-rocket engineering.
In a philosphical-art essay he developed"space philosophy ", which one rests on idea "of "atom" - immortal одушевленного of an elementary entity plying from an organism to an organism in the Universe. Space utopy of the Ciolkovsky settling of mankind in a solar System and other sidereal worlds, and hereafter - full biochemical modification of the inhabitants of the Earth and transformation them in reasonable "animal-plants" directly processing a solar energy guesses. Ideas of the Ciolkovsky was lied in the fundamentals of so called Russian cosmism.

CZEKAN Stanislaw (June 2 1922, Rostow - August 11 1994, Moscow), Russian actor of theatre and cinema. The honored artist of Russia Federation (1955).
In 1938-1941 studied in Zawadzki studio in a theatrical school in Rostov-upon-Don. In 1941-1945 - the actor of front theatre, since 1945 - of the Odessa theatre of the Soviet Army, in 1948-1956 - of Central academic theatre of the Soviet Army, in 1958-1993 - of Theatre - studio of a film actor. In cinema since 1946. In 1953 has played the first large role in film"Border post in mountains ". He also played pictures:"Test of an accuracy"(1954),"On a stage of the scene"(1956),"the Fighter and clown"(1957), "Person-amphibia" (1961),"We call for fire on ourselves"(1963-1964),"Trust me the people"(1964),"a Working settlement"(1965),"War and world"(1965-1967),"Two ticket on a day time session"(1966),"the Small fugitive"(1966),"a Diamond arm(hand)"(1968), "Wiriny" (1968),"New adventures imperceptible"(1968),
" Privalov's millions"(1972),"Love earth"(1974),"Incognito from St. Petersburg"(1977), "Destiny" (1977),"And Aniskin again"(1978),"Life is fine"(1980),"Rapid motion in verticals"(1983)

CZEKANOWSKI Aleksander (1833-76), contributor of Siberia. For participation in Polish revolt 1863-64 is banished in Transbaikalia. In 1869-75 investigated Primorski mpuntain chain, Middlesyberia plateau, rivers of Down Tunguska, Olenek, down flowing of Lena; has opened mountain chain called by his name.

CZERSKI Jan (1845-92), contributor East Siberia. For participation in Polish revolt 1863-64 is banished in Siberia. Has compounded the first geologic map of coast of Baikal. Has offered one of the first tectonic schemes of internal Asia (1886), has put forward idea of developmental development of a relief (1878).

DABROWSKI Bronislaw (1885-1973), Zoologist, professor (1930), academician Academy of sciences Kazakh SSR (1954). Works on a comparative anatomy and developmental morphology of animals.

DRZEWIECKI Stefan (1843-1938), inventor. Was working in Russia, since 1892 in Francium. Has created designs of a series of submersibles, including with an electric motor (1880). Works on calculations and designs of propellers.

DWORZECKI Wladyslaw (1939-78), Russian actor. The recognition to him was brought by(with) a debut in film by Alov and Naumov "The running" (1971), where he has played one of playing key roles of the general Hludov. Was participated also in films: "St.Lucas Returning" (1971), ЭThe Sannikov's Land" (1973), "About last minute" (1974, State premium Ukrainian USSR, 1975). Last role has played in a TV film "Classmates" (1978).

DYBOWSKI Benedykt (1833-1930), Zoologist, foreign corresponding member Academy of sciences USSR (1928). For participation in Polish revolt 1863-64 is banished (1864) in East Siberia. Has described natural environments and fauna of Baikal lake, fauna a bassein of Amur river, Kamchatka etc. Since 1883 at the Lvov university.

DZIERZYNSKI Feliks (1877-1926), political figure. One of the chiefs of Revolution 1905-07 (Warsaw). In October revolution the member of party Military-revolutionary center and Petesburg Military-revolutionary committee. From 1917 chairmen of the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission. National securities organs and people's comissar of internal business of RSFSR in 1919-23, USSR is simultaneous with 1921 нарком of means of communication, from 1924 chairmen all-union council of the people's economy; from 1921 chairmen of Commission on an improvement in the life of children at the All-Russia Central Executive committee. The member Central Comitte of a consignment in 1907-12 and since 1917. The candidate in the members of the Poltbiuro of the Central Comitte since 1924.

GERMAN Anna (1935, Urgench, Uzbekistan - on August 26 1982, Warsaw), Polish variety singer.
Has gradueted from Geologic institute of Wroclaw university, simultaneously worked at Kalambur theatre. With 1959 began to act on a professional platform. Hermann acted on an international festival of variety music in Sopot (in 1964 - 2-nd the premium; in 1965 - 1-st the premium for a song"Eurydyka Dancing "), on a festival"Friendship of youth"(1967, main prize), on a festival of variety music in San Remo (1967), festival of the Neapolitan music in Sorrento (" Oscar of sympathies "), and also in the Parisian hall "Olimp" together with the French singer Dalida.
In 1967 Anna German has got in auto catastrophe and up to 1971 did not appeared on the scene. In this period in repertoir the singers come up songs "Nightingales", "Hope" (A.I.Pahmutova),"an Echo of love"(E.Ptichkin), "Thee, mum..."(O. Felzman) etc. Hermann chanted also Russian national songs:"From of islands to quick flowing ","Hasbulat the good ","Burn - burn, my star ","And me pity ". The singer acted with solo concerts at the Warsaw Large opera theatre, with the program of Polish and Soviet songs went on tour till USSR, participat in telecasts. In 1972 went on tour in USA.

GILAROWSKI Wlodziemierz (1853-1935), Russian writer. The books of essays about pre-revolutionary Russia, customs and customs of aged Moscow:"People from the bad houses" (1887),"Moscow and muscovites"(1926),"my wanderings"(1928),"the People of theatre"(is published 1941).

GOGOL (JANOWSKI) Nikolaj (1809-52), Russian writer. The literary notoriety Gogol was brought by the accumulator cell"Evenings on bowery near Dikan'ka"(1831-32), saturated Ukrainian ethnographic and folklore material marked by romantic moods, lirysm and humour. The stories from the accumulator cells "Mirgoros" and "Arabesks" (both - 1835) open realistic period of Gogol's creativity. The subject degradness"of the small person"is fullest "Overcoat" (1842) was embodied in the story, becoming natural school is connected to which one. A grotesque beginning"of the Petersburg stories"("Nose", "Portrait" etc.) has received development in a comedy "Auditor" (production 1836) as fantasy of a officer-bureaucratic world. In the poem - novel"Dead douches"(1-st volume - 1842) the satirical derision помещичьей of Russia has incorporated with fervor of spiritual transfiguration of the person. The religious - publicistic book"Selected places from correspondence with the friends"(1847) has called the critical letter In.. Belinski. In 1852 Gogol has burnt the manuscript of 2-nd volume"Dead douche ". Gogol has rendered decisive effect on the statement of humanist and democratic principles in Russian literature.

GRYNIEWICKI Ignacy (near 1856-81), member"of National will ". Conducted propagation among the Petersburg workers. March 1 1881 has thrown a bomb, by detonating which one were lethally wounded the emperor Александр II and him itself.

GZOWSKA OLGA (October 23 1883, Moscow - on July 2 1962, Leningrad; Russian actress of theatre and cinema is buried in Moscow). Was born in monogynopaedium of the officer of a Polish parentage. After termination a grammar school acts in amateur theatricals. In 1905 has ended theatrical school at Small theatre and was entered in its troupe, where up to 1910 (with small interruptions on performances) has played with huge success a number(series) of roles: Ariel, Beatrice, Desdemona ("Boring","There is a lot of noise from anything ", "Othello" by Shakespeare), Marina Mniszek (" Dmitry the Impostor and Basil Szujski"A.N.Ostrowski), Cleopatra (" Caesar and Cleopatra ". Show), Cerubino (" Mad day, or Figaro's marrige"P.Bomarche). The writer of the book"Paths and crossroads. Portraits"(M., 1976).

HANECKI Jakub (the authentical name and surname is Jakub Fuerstenberg) (1879-1937), participant of revolutionary Russian movement. The son of the Polish businessman and industrialist. In social-democratic movement participat from a beginning 1900-th . In 1905-07 one of the main prompters of working protrusions in Warsaw. Subjected to arrests, in November 1907 was deported in the Orenburg province, but soon ran away. From a beginning of the First world war kept revolutionary activity in Kingdom of Poland. Using the business and party connections in international circles, has achieved release Lenin from the Austrian prison in 1914, has played a main role in organization of Leinin returning and other bolsheviks to Russia in 1917. Kept in touch with german general headquarters, organizing transfer of moneys on requiring of a consignment of bolsheviks through the companies in Sweden.
After October revolution has returned to Russia, was on state, party and diplomatic activity. In 1937 arrested and soon was shooted. The prohibition was imposed on a mention of his name, his aftertreatment was held only in 1989.

HERLING-GRUDZINSKI Gustaw (born 1919), Polish writer. In 1940 is repressed by the Soviet authorities on occupied by them of territory, is concluded in camp (book of the memoirs"Diverse world ", 1953), after long-lived hunger-strike is freed ahead of schedule. Combated in army of the general Андерса, participated in fight under Monte-Cassino. After war emigrated in Germany, since 1955 lives in Italy. The accumulator cell of an essay about the Polish writers 20 in."Living and died"(1945), book of short stories "The burshtyn gate"(1960), "Second coming" (1963), "Island" (1967). After 1988 is published in Poland (book of the stories "Tower", 1988; the accumulator cells of an essay"Hour of a shadow ", 1991,"a Diary writing on night ", 1992). His"World diverse"was one of the first products about Stalin's repressions.

JAWORSKI Boleslaw (1877-1942), music erudit and pianist, doctor of an art criticism. Has created the theory of the so called tuning hythm. One of the organizers of National conservatoire in Moscow (1906). Works under the theory of music, history of performing styles. An ab a torus of pieces of music. The professor Kiev (since 1916) and Moscow (since 1938) conservatoires.

JANKOWSKI Oleg (born 1944), actor. The national actor USSR (1991). In 1967-73 at the Saratov drama theatre, since 1973 at the Moscow theatre named Lenin Komsomol (since 1990 Moscow theatres "Lenkom"). Roles: Lenin ("A Revolutionary etude" by Shatrov), Hamlet ("Hamlet" by William Shakespeare) etc. Was paticipated in films: "Mirror" (1974), "Nostalgia" (1982) by Tarkowski,"Flights in dream and in waking hours"(1982, State premium USSR, 1987) by Balajan,"To kill the dragon"(1988) by Zaharow,"Kreizer sonata"(1987),"Mado, poste restante ", "Passport" (both - 1990), "Regicide" (1991),"the Mute witness"(1994),"Fatal eggs"(1995), "Auditor" (1996); television films"an Ordinary miracle"(1978),"That Muenchausen"(1979) etc. State premium of Russian Federation (1997), premium "Nika-91"

JANOWSKI-GOGOL Nikolaj - see Gogol.

JASIENSKI Bruno (1901-38), Polish and Russian writer. From 1929 was living in USSR. A poem"a Song about famine"(1922) and revolutionary verses on the Polish language. A fancy novel - pamphlet"I жгу Paris"(1928). The novel"the Person changes a skin"(hours 1-2, 1932-1933) about social processes after revolution; in the anti-fascist novel"the Plot indifferent"(is published in 1956, uncompleted) drama conflicts of duties is middle of 30-th, beforefeeling of approaching catastrophe. Is repressed; is rehabilitated after death.

KATHRINE I - See of Skowronska Marta

KIERBIEDZ Stanislaw (1810-99), engineer, corresponding member (1851), honorary member (1858) Petersburg Academy of Scinces. Worked in Russia. The writer of the projects of bridges through Neva in St.-Petersburg (nowadays Schidt's bridge), railway - through р. Pratums, through р. Vistula in Warsaw.

KOWALEWSKI Jozef (1800/01-78), Polish and Russianscientist in the Mongolia and Tibet, academician Petersburg Academy of sciences (1847). Researches of a history, languages, literature, ethnography of the Mongolian peoples. Works on the Buddhism.

KOWALSKI Marian (1821-84), astronomer, corresponding member Petersburg Academy of sciences (1862). The writer of the first theory of motion of Neptune, method of definition of orbits of binary stars, investigated the motion of the Sun. For the first time mathematically has formulated a problem about rotation of a Galaxy.

KOPECKI Czeslaw (1932-88), chemist-nonogranicist, corresponding member Academy of sciences USSR (1979). Works in the field of a physical metallurgy both technology highpury of metals and alloys, technology of processing of inorganic materials. The state premium USSR (1968).

KOTWICZ Wlodzimierz (1872-1944), Eastexplorer, corresponding member Academy of sciences USSR (1925; corresponding member of Russian academy of sciences since 1923). Works on Mongolian, turkish and tungus-manchzhuria to languages.

KRUPSKA Nadzieja (1869-1939), political figure, honorary member Academy of sciences USSR (1931). The wife of W.I.Lenin. The member Petersburg"Union of the scrambling for release of working class ". From 1917 members of board, from 1929 assistants наркома of enlightenment of RSFSR. From 1920 chairmen of Glavpolitprosvet by the People Commette of education. The member of the Central Control comission since 1924, member Central Commette of a Prty since 1927. Works on pedagogics, history Communist Party of Soviet Union.

KRUSZEWSKI Nikolaj (1851-87), linguist, expert on general and indoeuropical linguistics. One of representatives of the Kazan linguistic school.

KRZESINSKA Matilda (1872-1971), Russian ballet actress, teacher. In 1890-1917 in Mariinski theatre. One of the brightest representatives of Russian academic school. Went on tour in Europe, in 1911-12 the seconds participated in performances of Russian ballet named Diagilew. From 1920 was living and worked in Paris.

KRZYZANOWSKI Gleb (1872-1959), political figure, academician (1929), vice-president (1929-39) Academy of sciences USSR, Hero of a Socialist Transactions (1957). In 1903-04 member of the central Vommitte of Russian Social-democratic Workers Party, member Central Commette of Communist Party in 1924-39. In 1920 chairmen of Electrification of Russia commission . In 1921-23, 1925-30 chairmen of State Plan, from 1930 directors of Power institute Academy of sciences USSR (nowadays named Krzyzanowski). Works on electrification of a national economy. The writer of songs "Warszawianka" (" Vortexes hostile ") "Be mad, tyrants!" etc.

LESNIEWSKI Stanislaw (born 1930), critic, literary scholar. In a centre of attention - poetry of the XX century. Activities dedicated Blok, Ahmatova, Majkowski, Twardowski etc. Book:"Testamented, treasured"(1977),"Path open to looks: the Moscow ground in life of Blok"(1980),"I shall come to you...: the poets. Poetry. Time"(1982) etc.

LEWANIEWSKI ZYGMUNT (1902-37), Russian pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union (1934). In 1934 participated in saving crew of the motorship "Czeluskin", in 1936 has made overfly Los-Angeles - Moscow. The member Central Executive Committee of
USSR. Has disappeared without a message at attempt of overfly through Blue pole.

LUBIECKI Franciszek (1779-1846), prince, minister of the finance (1821-30) Kingdoms of Poland. Promoted a development of industry, trade, construction of roads. From 1832 members of State Advice of the Russian empire.

LUBLINSKI (authentical surname Motoszonowicz) Julian (1798-1873), Decembrist, landowner of the Volynsk labiums. One of the founders of Company of the joint slavs. Is convicted for 3 years of penal servitude. In 1829-56 on settlement in Irkutsk labiums.

MALEWICZ Kazimierz (1878-1935), artist. The founder of one of kinds of abstract art, so called supermatism (" a Black square ", 1915). Since beg. of 1920-th was engaged in scientific - teaching activity. In beg. pf 1930-th has addressed to realistic painting ("Auto portrait", 1933).

MARCHLEWSKI Julian (1866-1925), political figure. One of the organizers and chiefs of a social Democracy of a Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. The participant of Revolution 1905-07 (Warsaw). One of the organizers of Spartak group in Germanium. In 1920 chairmen Temporary Revolutional committee of Poland. From 1922 rectors of Communist university of national minorities of West. Works on a history of revolutionary movement.

MNISZECH Marina (near 1588 - near 1614), Russian empress, daughter of the Polish magnate. The wife of so called Falsdmitry I and Falsdmitry II. Was produced by the Jaik cossacks to Russian government. Has died in an imprisonment.

NENCKI Marceli (1847-1901), biochemist. Since 1891 in St.-Petersburg. Has offered (together with Pawlow) one of the theories of a biosynthesis of a urea in an organism of mammals. Has established chemical frame of a heme and has shown (1897-1901, together with the Polish scientist of L. Marchlewski) chemical cognation of a hemoglobin and chlorophyll.

NIZYNSKI Waclaw (1889, under other data, 1890-1950), ballet-dancer, balletmeister. In 1907-11 in Mariinski theatre in St.-Petersburg, after dismissal in 1911 was living abroad, basically in France. In 1909-13 participants of Russian seasons, in 1916-17 in Diagilew's troupe (main consignments in ballets put by Fokin, best - of a Parsley - "Parsley" I.F.Strawinski). The choreograf-innovator. Nizynski has put ballets:"Afternoon fawn's rest"(1912), "Game" Debussix,"Spring sacred"by Strawinski (both in 1913),"Til Ulenspiegel"(1916) on Strauss music.

ORLOWSKI Aleksander (1777-1832), painter and schedule. A representative of romanticism. Distinguishing pictures of a Polish household activities, scene of Polish revolt 1794. In Russia since 1802. Free on a fashion of fulfilment the battle and genre scenes, portraits, sketch of a national household activities.

OSTERWA Juliusz (authenticall surname Maluszek) (1885-1947), Polish actor, producer, theatrical figure. On the scene since 1904, played theatres of Krakow, Poznan, Warsaw, in Polish troupes of Samara, Kiev and Moscow (1916-18). A follower of Moscow art theater school. In 1918-39 supervised the Reduta theatre (Warsaw).

PADLEWSKI Leon (1870-1943), Russian microbiologist and epidemiologist, professor (1918). Since 1922  in Poland, where managed stand of a microbiology of Poznan university. The main activities on analysis of derivation of toxins by a plague bacteria and preventive maintenance of a plague. Has offered (1908) medium for allocation of bacterias of a typhoid.

PORZEZINSKI Jan Wiktor (1870-1929), Russian and Polish linguist. The professor of MSU. The main works on a history and dialectology of Baltic languages, Russian, indoeuropian to comparable-historical linguistics.

PJECHA Edita (born July 31 1937), Russian variety singer, national artist of USSR (1988).
Was born in Polish family in Francium. Being trained in school, chanted in chorus, has ended pedagogical liceum and courses of Russian in Gdansk. In 1955 has arrived to Leningrad; studying on separation of psychology of philosophical faculty of the Leningrad university, began to participate in student's concerts.
In 1956 was invited to "Friendship" group under a management under Broniewicki, the wife which one became subsequently. In a structure of an ensemble became the winner of VI-th World-wide festival of youth and students in Moscow (1957). Went on tour with an ensemble in Francium, Poland, Chechoslovakia, Germany, Finland, GDR, Mongolia, USA, Austria.
Executed songs by the composers Flarkowski, Felzman, Petrow, Frenkel, Pahmutowa etc.
More than 10 disks - jumbos were recorded in "the "Tune" corporation, the songs from which one were included in golden fund of the Soviet platform: "A Huge palate", "The People, smile a world", "City of childhood", "Garland of Danube", "The Occurring of the friends" etc. Many from these songs were issued by recording corporations in Francium, on Cuba, in GDR, Poland. Went on tour more than in 20 countries of a world. On Cuba Madam a song"was awarded title"doubly left on the scene of the Parisian Olimpia hall, became first of the Soviet variety stars appearing in Afghanistan. In 1968 on IX-th a World festival of youth and students in Sofia on competition political songs has conquered a golden medal. In 1976 has created an own ensemble. The "Tune" corporation has marked the singer "Nefrit" by the disc by the award adjudged to the actor for record, million circulations of her recordings. Was participated in films: "Destiny of a resident", "Incorrigible liar", "Brilliants for dictatorship of proletariat".

RAKOWSKI Adam (1879-1941), Russian physiсist and chemist, corresponding member Academy of sciences USSR (1933). Works on an adsorption, equilibrium in water-salt multicomponent systems, chemistry of pure chemical agents.

ROKOSSOWSKI Konstanty (1896-1968), Marshal of the Soviet Union (1944), marshal of Poland (1949), doubly Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945). In Great Domestic war commanded by army in the Moscow battle, Bryansk, Don (in
Stalingrad battle), Central, Byelorussian, -1-st and 2-nd Byelorussian (in Wisla-Oder and Berlin operations) fronts. In 1945-49 commanders -in-chief by Northern group of forces. In 1949-56 ministers of a national defense and vice-president of ministerial Council of Poland; the member Politbiuro of the Central Committee of a Polish integrated working party PZPR. In 1956-57 and 1958-62 deputies minister of a defense USSR. Was repressed in August 1937 - March 1940.

SEMIRADZKI Henryk (1843-1902), Russian painter. Was living generally in Rome. The representative of academism. Predominantly scenes from antique life ("Frina", 1889).

SIERAKOWSKI Zygmunt (1826-63), captain of the Russian General Staff. The employee "of "Bell" and "Contemporary" journals. In 1857 had organized a revolutionary circle of the officers in St.-Petersburg. In 1863 chiefs of revolt in Lithuania. Is executed.

SIKORSKI Igor (1889-1972), aircraft designer and industrialist. Was born in Russia, since 1908 plotted airplanes, including first in a world 4-motor airplanes"Russian kneht"and"Ilja the Muromer ". In 1919 emigrated to USA (in 1923 has based the corporation), where under his management the passenger and military airplanes and helicopters are created.

SKOWRONSKA MARTA (Kathrine I) (1684-1727), Russian empress since 1725, second wife of Peter I. Is erected on a throne by guards led by A.D.Menshikov, which one became the actual governor of the state. At her the Supreme Privy Council was created. She was one of the most charm and attractive empresses of Russia.

SNIADECKI Jan (1756-1830), Polish scientist and educator, corresponding member Petersburg Academy of sciences (1811). Work"About Копернике"(1802). Systematically watched planetoids.

SPASOKUKOCKI Sergiusz (1870-1943), surgeon, founder of scientific school, academician Academy of sciences USSR (1942). Works on surgery of a gastrointestinal сhannel, mild, blood transfusion. Has offered a way of beforeoperation processing of hands. The state premium USSR (1942).

STRYJKOWSKI Maciej (1547?? - 1595) Polish historian, writer of several products, among which one the outstanding place is taken printed out"by(with) the Chronicle Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Zmudian ", published in 1582 in Koenigsberg on the Polish language and appeared first printed out chronicle Polish and Russian of the peoples on the slavonic language. Made the vast effect on Russian historygraphy.

STRZELCZYK Wladyslaw (1921-95), actor, national actor USSR (1974), Hero of a Socialist Labour (1988). Since 1940 at the Leningrad Large drama theatre (from 1992 St.-Petersburg Large drama theatres named by Towstonogow). Among roles: Tsyganow ("Barbarians" by Gorki), Gregory Solomon ("Price" by Miller), Prince Pantiashwili ("Hanuma" Cagareli), Gorodulin ("On any wise man it is pleased of a simplicity" by Ostrowski). The Provincial benefit performance"(1993) was participated in films "War and peace" (1965-67), "Star of captivating happiness" (1975), "Marriage" (1977), "Leave from Saturday till Monday"(1984), TV films
"The adjutant of his excellency"(1970), "Straw cap" (1974), "Russia the young" (1982), "Tartuf" (1992).

SZOSTAKOWSKI Michael (1905-83), chemists - organics, corresponding member Academy of sciences USSR (1960). Works on chemistry of divinyl oxides and their polymers. Has offered medical balm (vinilin, so called szostakowski's balm). The state premium USSR (1949).

SZYMANSKI Julian (1883-1962), scientist in the field of a mechanics, shipbuilder, academician Academy of sciences USSR (1953). Works on structural mechanics and ship theory. The state premium USSR (1941).

TURSKI Kaspar Michael (near 1847-1926), figure of Russian and Polish revolutionary movement. Since 1869 in emigration, organizer"Slavonic mug ", member of edition of the log-book "Alarm", founder"Companies of national release ", in 1888-89 publishers of the newspaper "Freedom", in 1890 has joined Polish socialist party.

WARSKI Adolf (1868-1937), one of the organizers in 1893 social democracies of a Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, in 1918 Communist Party of Poland (PPK). In 1929 emigrated, was living in USSR. Was repressed; is rehabilitated after death.

WASILEWSKA Wanda (1905-64), Polish and Russian writer, public figure. Since 1939 in USSR. In the trilogy "The ode above waters"(1940-51) pictures of life of pre-war and post-war Poland; the story "Rainbow" (1942) about bravery of the Soviet people within Great Domestic war. The state premium USSR (1943, 1946, 1952).

WOLF Boleslaw Maurycy (on 3 November (15 1825, Warsaw - on February 19 (March 3) 1883, St.-Petersburg), Russian publisher and bookseller. Upon termination of a grammar school some time worked in a bookshop, then traveled on Europe, were engaged book trade in Paris, Krakow, Leipzig, Vilnius, Lwow. In 1848 has moved to St. Petersburg and I have entered the book-selling corporation of A.I.Isakov, soon became control. After five years of a service for Isakow Wolf has opened the bookshop in St. Petersburg in Gostinnyj a court yard, in three years has gained a printing house.
The publishing of own book production Wolf has begun in 1853. Having experienced increase of concern in Russian company to natural sciences and engineering, he began to publish the books dedicated these branches of knowledge. During all activity Wolf searched "of a white spot" in the book market and undertook publishing only in the event that it guaranteed to him profit. To this principle he adhered irrespective of subjects and assignment of publishings (magnificently made out books for the solvent people, popular editions of the art literature, tutorials and т. Item). The similar approach has fixed for Wolf the reputation of the robust businessman. However, despite of rigid commercial policy, his activity has rendered severe effect on development of education in Russia. He first began to issue series of the children's and youthful books (" the Pink library ","the Golden library", "the Green library", "Russian library", "the Moral novels for youth" etc.). In their design he has used european experience, and at formation of series took into account psychologic features of age children's perception. The special attention Wolf gave to publishing of the log-books for children, the greatest popularity had the" Heart-felt word" (title used"is invented I.I.Goncharow). In 1878 Wolf has gained best lettermaking workshop of E.Reviglon. In 1882 he grounds publishing house on the shares" Company of M.A.Wolf" , which one was existed up to 1918 (main shareholders were his wife, son and son-in-law).

WOLSKI Wiktor (b. 1921), Russian economist, corresponding member of Russian cacademy of sciences (1991; corresponding member ACADEMY OF SCIENCES USSR since 1984), Hero of the Soviet Union (1945). The main works on economics of Latin America and problems of global economics. The state premium of USSR (1987).

WOROWSKI Waclaw (1871-1923), Russian political figure, publicist. One of the first literary critics-marxists. Since November 1917 salting in the Scandinavian countries, from 1921 ambassadors in Italy. Was killed by the whiteguarder in Lausanne.

WROBLEWSKI Zygmunt Florenсy (1845-88), Polish physiсist. The participant of Polish revolt 1863-64, up to 1869 in the link in Tomsk. In 1883 together with K.Olszewski for the first time has received liquid oxygen in measurable quantities, and then nitrogen and white damp. Has perished at detonating the trial type.

ZAPASZNY Mieczyslaw (born 1938), circus performer, national actor USSR (1990). The family representative of the circus actors of the acrobats and gymnasts. Acted with the sister by Anna Михайловной in composite numbers combining acrobatics and вольтижировку, and also acts as the ringmaster of the elephants, tigers etc. animal. The state premium of Russian Federation (1997).

ZAPOLSKA Gabriela (1857-1921), Writeress. Products about moral faults of Polish company the end of XIX - beg of XX xetnuries: the stories, stories, novels (" Kas'ka Kariatyda ", 1887), "Petty-bourgeois tragicomedies" ("Mrs Dulska's Moral", 1906). The patriotic play "That" (1899). The most popular in Russia is "Mrs Dulska's Moral".

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