Polski Russkij

Wladyslaw Polakowski

The Poles of east: expelled from everywhere or assimilated?


Or and that and another. A pair of words about a problem of repatriation

In this clause will be mentioned forgotten (or nearly so forgotten) and a very little popular (or absolutely not popular) political subject. Actually subject of the Polish repatriation.

Germen of Russia have the right of return to Germany. The Greeks of Russia have the right of return to Greece. The Jews of Russia have right to go to Israel. As for the Poles of Russia and in general by Poles of East the situation is a little differently. It is possible even to tell worse. The right of return of the Poles of east to a historical native land seldom even is recollected.


Very much it would be desirable to recollect thus repatriotical policy spent by the Polish authorities in first years after WWII. The right of the Polish citizenship was received with everyone who was the citizen of Poland intermilitary or was at war in Polish Army. The others of such rights were deprived.


Having made digression in the newest history, it is possible to tell, that in the beginning XX of century the demographic situation in territory of Russia has developed in such a manner that the majority of the Poles and persons mixed origin with prevalence of the Polish blood lived territories of former Rzeczpospolita. Not numerous exception was the Poles living in Siberia and evarage strip of Russia. In relation to the most active participants of antiimperial revolts 1830 and 1863-64 years the policy of an interdiction of residing in territory was carried out, where the Poles made the conclusive ethnic majority. Instead of it they were offered to live in areas a little more east. Thus in east regions of former Rzeczpospolita the centres of the Polish culture have become stronger slightly.


About political participation of the Poles in events in Russia in the beginning XX of century, it is possible to tell shortly, that they at once were obviously shared on red (overwhelming minority) and white - red (overwhelming majority, the author expresses hope, that the symbolics is clear enough).


The idea of world revolution was poorly connected to idea of independence of Poland, therefore the red Poles frequently had the cool relation to struggle for independence, for what frequently were criticized red Russian, for thus lost in popularity much.


After he quick of war of 1920 east border of RP was generated in such a manner that the number of the Poles living to east from it was at least of 500 thousand the persons. In a place of the large congestion of the Poles in Zhitomir area on Ukraine there was even a short-term Polish autonomic republic.


If to speak actually about Rzeczpospolita, as far as the author knows, in Poland intermilitary were certain(determined) of friction between the Poles after Russia, Germany and Austria. Most brightly expressed these of friction were in environment(Wednesday) of the militarians and officia{...}


Most brightly expressed these of friction were in environment of the militarians and officials. Thus as the people exemplary the people from territories ex-German were considered, as the people staying under not by the best influence of Russia the Poles after Russia were considered.


It was possible to the author as rather bright memoirs of the known Polish detective writer Jerzy Putrament, where this atmosphere as a whole is brightly enough described. The Putrament's father as the ex-officer of Russian army had few chances of career in army of Poland.


Upon termination of the second world war at moving borders on west the policy(politics) of repatriation was carried out(spent). Repatriation the laws were those, that the right of return on a historical Native land had not everyone. The citizens of Poland interwar or military men of an Army Polish had that right only. At other representatives of the Polish nationality of such right hadn't.


Years have passed. The dismantle of socialist system began. In 1989 the author was reached by(with) the certain information, that the repatriation was proclaimed. In 1989 the author was faced with the certain information, that the repatriation was proclaimed. After once author has heard this information, more he about such did not hear never.


Moreover, since 1990 on the given question he only heard, that the policy of repatriation will not be carried out and to realization is not planned.

As it is strange... From this point of view Poland is essential behind of Germany, Greece, Israel, which have proclaimed policy of repatriation of the persons of the given nationality officially, as one of items of state policy. Eventually as the known Polish saying, we always behind speaks...


Very much it would be desirable to tell a rather interesting history about the Roman Malowski from Kiev, which in due time was one of the most active members of the Kiev cultural - public organization named Mickiewicz. So it was possible, that for the first time in Poland he was, being of years not most young, in 1993, when already large wave of the dealers, which crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border, gradually has gone on a loss. Before, in 80-th years, he some times tried as to go away by the private invitation. But on Ukraine, in difference, to a word speaking, from Russia, the requirements for leaving were stricter and for departure by the private invitation it was necessary necessarily to have a certain related connection, that him then was not. Then he spoke about it with the Ukrainian officials, (to a word much speaking, the official on Ukraine it is rare the official, tcarring the duties and only, this person is much more often the borrowing certain public situation) and heard two interesting points of view:


- First - so you the Pole, hence there will go and will not return,

-          Second - so thre living the Poles, having learned, that you from Ukraine, on you the negative emotions rather USSR will express.


Unfortunately Roman was convinced, that were right both those, and others. During the stay in the country the author, unfortunately, too met of the certain persons, which did not hesitate on the author to express negative emotions rather USSR.


It is possible still to recollect a certain amount of the letters, which Poles of east, mainly pensioners, write in Warsaw. (the Author has learned about it from one lady, when has arrived once to Warsaw not only on personal businesses). Write about not to the best life in the post - Soviet countries with the numerous requests for the help, in spite of the fact that legally do not relate to RP. Write as the Poles to the Poles. But as do not love such letters in Warsaw.


The author as the private person can not tell, that at him(it) in Russia the life is very bad and that if of what it(he) thinks so it is departure somewhere. But with the right of return of the Poles of east in RP the question should be solved essentially.

Letter to Wladyslaw Polakowski
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