WHEN ROMA WAS FOUND ACCORDING CICERO
You can at once be acquainted with the problem solution for the Roma italian and Constantinopol.
Very interesting chapter from Cicero work De respublica (About republic) printed Ginzel in (1) and Morozov in (2). In (1) it has number 12 in his eclipse list and is on page 180, in Morozov you can find it in chapter 6 on p. 426.
We reproduce by (2) text Cicero from his work De respublica:
"Id autem postea ne nostrum quidem Ennium fugit, qui ut scribit, anno trecentesimo quinquagesimo fere post Roman conditam
Nonis Iunis soli luna obstitit et nox.
Atque hac in re tanta atque sollertia, ut ex hoc die, quem Ennium apud et in maximus annalibus consignatum videmus, superiores solis defectionis reputatae sint usque ad illam, quae Nonis Quinctilibus fuit regnante Romulo; quibus Romulum tenebris etiam si natura exitum abripuit, vitrus tamen in caelum dicitur sustulisse."
"This didn't run from our Ennius, which writes near year 350 from capital foundation in June nones (June 7) Moon covered Sun and night became (Soli luna obstiti et nox). The wisdom of art is in the following: from day, which is wrighted by Ennius and about which say so greatest chronicles all solar eclipses was compUTed till day which was in quintil nones (July 7) in Romul governing. If even nature brought Romul to the end by those darkness his nobless brought him to heavens"
Tellimg in general it is possible don't pay attention to situating a little down link equal is possible in general no read this article because is very popular opinion that the first seven roman kings are cabbalistical and they are reflection of seven days a week. Neverthless clicking a little down you can be acquainted with consideretion of this problem on the case of julian calendar and calendars which was before it. Is considered also the origin of terms calends, nones and ides.
Nones was taking place by julian calendar not in 7-th but in 5-th june. May be that's why he had considered this note as principally nonserious.
Hence in this chapter two circumstances are mentioned:
1 - In year 350 from capital foundation (Cicero eventually as those considered Roma) was held solar eclipse with rather big phase at June 5(or nearly June 5)
2 - Was calculated solar eclipses till Romul Roma foundator death in quintil nones.
Author considered in abovereproducing quotation may be going about on of three Roma: Roma Italian, Constantinopol or Alexandria in Egypt. The consiqunted declinings method was applied: at first was considered all eclipses held precisely at June 5 and July 7 Julian calendar according solar eclipses canon. After this by most eventual mistakes method was supposed that ancient authors could make mistake in fixing of observations and in computing of eclipses on one, two, three and so on and considered all eclipses having distance from mentioned in chronicles dates on one, two and so on days. The maximum ammount of mistake making by ancient wisdomers was taken one week.
Thus it is possible tobe facing with one annoying problem.
What about nones and calends
are well counted within the framework of a julian calendar. As to same calculations on
case of the beforejuliancalendar, they appear incredibly composite, as with months for
ancient romaes, according to a conventional history of ancient Rome, was not that's all right and calendar,
prioring julian, was incredibly composite.
The terms "calends", "nones", "ides", as it is considered, in a Roman
calendar have got from Greek
Lunar (1, page 203). Originally calends meant a new moon, nones one - first quarter of the moon, ides
- full moon. From this point of view to consider our problem in general there is nothing, as solar
the eclipses are be only in a new moon, on Ancient Roma of a calendar nomenclature - in Kalends. And in
this case the Cicero's personage for certain would say not "near nones", but "near calends". The similar analysis
the informations contained in input datas, speaks that mentioned by Cicero Ennius and
also ancient wise men calculated eclipses, used concept "nones" not in original, and in
more late sense.
The Table 1
To this it is necessary to add, that we precisely do not know, for
what day of a julian calendar fall
of earliest June nones of a Numa's calendar. About it it is possible to evaluate so: year started in
March calends (there is a probability, that they in some cases coincid with vernal
By equinox), and in a random coincidence earliest March calends of a Numa's calendar since March 1
Julian calendar June nones was coming in 96 days, namely June 4. The most distant date
this range we shall count simplly by suffixing 32 days and we shall receive thus July 6.
So, for consideration June nones we shall take range of dates from
June 4 till July 6 julian
calendar, also we shall see, what in Rome were in that time of an eclipse. From similar reasoning
we shall consider date of July nones from July 3 till August 4.
We specially shall not consider period which was set in after 182
up to CE, when a calendar,
as of the items of information from a conventional history of ancient Rome, had no any order and insert
months was made bodily and completely under the order of the priests. From here upper chronological
boundary. By lower boundary we shall take year 800 up to CE.
The obtained outcomes on Constantinople and Rome we shall put in
the table 2. The characters A, K and R mean
Alexandria, Constantinople and Rome. The first two pillars is a year and month / day.
The table 2
Pairs -399/06/21 + -708/07/17 and -287/06/13 + -587/07/29 are passing in certain stage. Let's consider them more comprehensively.
For this purpose we convert to the table of complementarity of a
Numa's calendar and julian calendar. Between
By years -399 and -708 there are 309 years, that is 12 complete cycles of a Numa's calendar one with the duration 6 have passed Olympiads and 21 years. Distance between the indicated years in cycle thus 21 or 3 years.
Let's see, as though thus the calendar cycle was moved.
From the table it is visible, that for 21 years at transition from
a cell with number N to a cell with number N+21 (or: from the year with
number N by one year with number N+21) there are or suffixing 32 days,
(for the first cell,
appropriate to the first year of Numa's cycle), or 10 (for the second year), or 6 (for fourth and
Last year of cycle), or suffixing 8 days, or subtraction 18 days (for the lowermost string(line)),
Or subtraction 14 days (for the second string(line)).
For transition from a cell under number N to a cell under number
N+3 the situation is symmetric. In general
case it is correct to speak about numbers of transition arising in that case - 6, 8, 10, 14, 18. And if in -399
June nones are taking place on June 21, in -708 they could take place 3, 7, 11, 13, 15 and June 27. Then
July mones are coming in -708 came equally 2, 6, 10, 12, 14 or July 26. (Roundoff with accuracy
About day). Demanded July 17 there isn't.
Similarly between years -287 and -587 are 300 years, i.e. 12 complete
cycles of a Numa's calendar and 12 years have passed. At transition from
numbers of year N to number of year N+12 there are either suffixing or
subtraction 12 days. And if in -287 June nones are taking place in June
13, in -587 they took place 3 or June 23 on
to julian calendar, then July nones are coming 2 or July 22 (instead of demanded 29).
As we see, the priests were mistaken. And it's very large.
If to speak about eclipses observed especially from Constantinople,
a pair here takes place
Eclipses -349/10/06 + -690/07/28. Between these years has passed 341 years, and difference between such years
On Numa's cycle makes 5 years. Here numbers of transition are 6, 8, 14, 16, 18, 30. And in one year -690
ноны could come 24, 26, June 28. Then July nones are helding 23, 25, July 27. Theoretically
the error only per one day is quite possible, as. But the is going about Constantinople. So, year
-690 minus years of Romul's board, approximately -730.
If even to consideration to add Alexandria, the indicated eclipse
близ June nones
-251/07/05 would be held, and the eclipse at mors Ромула would be held -541/07/31.
Alas, such astronomical analysis of the information displays, that
hardly circumscribed period
is passing under the given quotation. As to composite period, which one starts per -182 years,
The priests calculating eclipses, if with it also collided, most likely, did not consider it
complexities, and simplly have counted nones and calends in a them, as on julian period.
The information on a calendar prior julian, is obtained from (4).
That is characteristic, Ginzel first of mentioned a June eclipse
has thoungt as to 21-st of June 399 up to AD,
Golzapfel - to 18-th of January (!!!) 401 up to AD (is played back on (2)).
Consideration of a problem on a case of the modern julian calendar
At first author tried to decide this problem on the base of published in (1) and (2) Oppolzer's canon but due to lacking in this canon dates BC and some other lacking (in particular nonconsidered differnce between united time UT and dynamic or ephemerid time ET) of this canon author used other more modern and authenticall canon made by our contemporary russian physisist Yury Krasilnikov.
By consideration of eclipse held in june none was considered all eclipses visible from Roma italian, Constantinopol and Alexandria in Egypt with phase of eclipse no less 0.6, because only those eclipses were really visible. Results of consideretion are presented in table 3.
The results of of consideration of eclipse held in july nones are in table 4. By consideration of this eclipse computed by ancient wisdomers author considered they could be wrong and could be mistaken by calculation of eclipse phase and that's why was considered without exception all eclipses visible from abovementioned three cities. Results of consideration were fixed in table 4. On the base of results writed in table 3 and 4 was for comfort drawed table 5.
In all tables the empty cell vice-versa means eclipses absence those
in the given date
Julian calendar. The absence of dates in the table means full absence of approaching days.
In tables 3 and 4 in first column are eclipse dates (month and day), in second year. Presense of sign minus in front of year number means year BC, absence of signs - year AD. Further there are three big columns divided on two subcolumns. In left one is maximum eclipse time by Grinvich and in right is eclipse phase. Was considered years from 1000 BC to 1500 AD. Results of treatment of first quotation wrote to table 3, second to table 4. Days are placed not in chronological order but in the order of increasing of dates difference between June 5 and July 7 and eclipse involved.
Table 1. Eclipses was held near june nones (by June 5)
Table 4. Eclipses held near quintil nones by Romul's death and calculated
according Cicero by ancient wisdomers.
We mark for obtaining local time knowing Grinvich for Roma italian it's necessary to all time meanings from left columns to add one hour, and for local time obtaining in Constantinopol and Alexandria Egypt it's necessary to add two hours to Grinvich time.
In table 5 for the better comfort in left group we place in chronological consequence eclipse dates of Roma foundation from table 4, and in right group we place eclipse dates held in June 5 from table 3.
For the comfort we shall treat data from the table 3. Let's mark according traditional history Romul Roma foundator governed 37 years, and if believe (30 there are only few information about his life and his life date was calculated from the cabbalistical considerations. There is known he get power being already mature.
From all data in table 5 we chose those one having relation to the Romul's death neqr quinlil or July nones and place they in the right part of table. In the left part of table we place eclipses which had held in June nones near 350 years after his death.
Results are placed in table 6.
In first column is given year number of eclipse near june nones, in second his date, in third Grinvich time (UT), in forth phase and city from which it was visible (we will write only eclipses with phase no less 0.8), in fifth year of Roma foundation obtaining by substraction 350 from year of eclipse observation, in sixth year of eclipse held in Romul year death, eventually calculating by ancient wisdomers and which really held according Krasilnikov's canon, in seventh its date, in eights its Grinvich time, in ninth its phases. Empty cells mean absense of passing eclipses.
Letters A, C and R near eclipse phases mean corresponding eclipse phase observing from those cities (Alexandria, Constantinopol, Roma).
|Year||Month/ Day||Time||Phase||The closest year from the Rom foundation (Year from the first Columne minus 350)||Year of the Romul's death (as to mentined eclispe)||Month/
From this table it is visible, that the eclipse substantially observed Ennius near to June nones was held, probably, in 346 CE, as it gives the least difference in dates with actual dates June nones, furthermore has enough large phase. The eclipse, appropriate to him, approximately 350 years prior to him at Romul's death is a holding July 1 in year 4 CE. Then Rome was based 37 years prior to it, approximately per 41 year CE.
If will be going of a message about the basis of Constantinople, by the most priority pair here will be 067/07/13 and -251/07/05 (difference 318 years).
Thus at calculation of an eclipse at Romul's death mentioned for Ennius ancient wise men essentially were mistaken with a place of observation, and from Europe this eclipse was unobservable.
Meanwhile by calculating of eclipse near the Romul's death wisdomers made mistake with the place of observing and this eclipse was not visible from Europe.
Less probable solutions of this problem the viewpoint of time interval to the June nones and phase are eclipses having held near June nones in the years 67, 197, 606, 634, 718.
Finally we tell a few about solution offered by Golzapfel namely June 21 399 BC. Difference with june nones 16 days.
This solar eclipse was held in Roma italian in 18:42 with phase 0.973 and was not visible in Constantinopol and Alexandria.
Let's describe all eclipses was visible from Roma italian 300-400 years before (range of years is 800-700 BC)
1. -790/06/24 16:08 0.938
2. -777/04/04 09:56 0.799
3. -764/02/10 07:24 0.905
4. -762/06/15 06:46 0.977
5. -736/07/26 12:32 0.804
6. -710/03/14 08:15 0.891
Comments are unnecessary. The nearest from abovementioned to jule nones is the first held in June 24 with difference 12 days from Jule nones.
So the most probable year of the Rom foundation is the 41 CE.
Was this article seemed you strange from viewpoint that author not believes to the ancient history textbook, giving doubts the tradition Roma foundation year (753 BC)?
So click here
Addition .... to all wishes are sending solar eclipses lists held in all mentioned cities in article calculated according Krasilnikov's canon.
1. Spezieller Kanon der Sonnen- und Mondfinsternisse fuer das Landregebiet
der klassische AltertumswissenschAften und ben Zeitraum von 900 vor Chr.
bis 600 nach Chr. von das F.K.Ginzel Staendigem Mitgliede des Konigl. Astronomische
Recheninstitutes, Berlin MAyer und Muller 1899
2. Morosow N.A. Christ. Volume 4. Moscow - Leningrad 1928
3. Morosow N.A. Christ. Volume 5. Moscow - Leningrad 1928
4. Klimischim I.A. Calendar and Chronology, Moscow, Science publish house 1985
January 1999. The last version August 2000