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Wladyslaw Polakowski


Translation to English by author. Every place when author faced with translations problems is marked as TP. Author requests Clicking here inform him about all mistakes.

Author informs you too about acknolegments with sources only in Russian translations. So some latin names can be rerproduces incorrectly. All problems with this reproduction will be marked as PL.




It's very interestingly to see how dominating in historic science conception of Mongol Empires and apeared a little soon Gold Orda state follows from main sources about mongols.

By exploring epoches bound with stormy of tataro-mongol conquest and prosperity tataro-mongol states one of sources, as to which historians- explorers made acquaintance in inner orgaization so called tataro-mongol state, by it population, by climate, by customs, by relationships with nearest neighbors, were journey memoes by directed by pope Roman residing then in Lille monk-monorite (minorites is one of departments of St.Francisc's order) John  Plano de Carpini and by directed by french king Ludovic the IX William de Rubrucus.

Author of this article will take on itself audacity to maintain, what very popular but very unsteady with view of common sense, but dominating in historic science version about unite mongol state from Dnipro till Amur was born namely on these sources (1), namely on the founding of completely noncritical behavior to him as to the sources of ideal from scientifically-documentary point of view and made noncorrect geografical localizations of above-mentioned in them places and peoples.

As to order.

1. Book titles

John  Plano de Carpini, Archbishop Antivary "History of Mongols nominated by us as tatars".

William de Rubrucus "Journey in East countries".

2. The briefs of sources and previous editions.

For last century was appeared three publishungs memoes of both authors in Russian under one binder three times:

- St-petersburg, publishing of Malein A. I., 1911, enthusiast of the publisher of various memoes anciency, - Moscow, Geografgiz, 1957, - Almaty, Gylym, 1993. Last publishing gived the most complete briefs of sources and scientific works by the theme of this tours. (the Author of introduction is Shastina N.).

The most ancient form available exemplars is scored Leiden manuscript dated by explorers (for example, by d'Avezac) by XIII century. But (as to Shastin®©) in the end of XIX century in library of Cantabrigian university was be found the manuscript of earlier origin with more autentical (!!! - W. P.) text. This manuscript used Beasley, very carefully studying its (Beazley C. R. On a hitherto unexamined manuscript of John de Plano Carpini// Geografical journal, 1902. December V. 20. N. 6. C. 646.647). Else two manuscripts of Plano Carpini there are in the national library of Paris, another in British museum".

"In XIII century manuscripts copmlected by Vincent from Bove PL (+1264). He composed larger encyclopaedia being very popular in its time, and under the title "Speculum majoris" ("Great mirror"), one from chapters of those encyclopaedia was named "Speculum historale" and comprised memoes Plano Carpini".

To word saying, in its time translation fragment from this manuscript was found in Irkutsk university, in old book in leather binding brought in univerciti's library from library spiritual seminary. As to examinations of Alexeev M. P. (Alexeev M. P. Siberia in Westeuropian piligrims and writers news. Irkutsk, 1941), several leaves from those encyclopaedia were fragments from Carpini's memoes.

In 1825 D. I. Yazykov of beginnings to prepare the publications "Meeting of tours to tatars", printed only memo Carpini and Ascelline, the memoes of rest travellers he only gethered in manuscripts. Self memoes under one binding were released on two languages - Russian and latin.

The best translation of both memoes form latin to Russian by Shastina was done by Malein.

From scientificall-popular editions on Russian language else emerged the publication of the M.Sherwood's book of "Ex ways in China" (M., 1931) and article by M. Adamowicz in journal "Nasha strana" ("Our country") (10/1940)".

From explorers Shastina marks Beasley who "studied all manuscript and firstprinted texts by Carpini and added their with valid and critical notations" (Beazley C. R. The text and versions of John de Plano Carpini and William de Rubruquis. London, 1903).

One of last editions memoes н  west was "The Mongol Misson", London, 1955, in which were bestowed memoes of Caprini, Rubrucus, Monte Corvino, Benedykt -pole, Andrew from Perugi. Else wherein were texts of pope bulls forwarded to great khan - Guyuk-khan and the translation of letter of Guyuk-khan to Innocenty IV.

What characteristicly, "in 1920г. original (!! - W. P.) of this letter on persian (!! - W. P.) language was be found in the archives of castle st. Angel in Vatican". Till this moment about it reply was of only several references. To studies letter is devoted Pello's work "Les Mongols et la papaute".

What touches memoes Rubrucus, one of most ancient the lists of manuscript was issued in 1598 by Hakluyt. Through the quarter of century on the grund of more complete (!? - W. P.) manuscripts, discovered in Cambridge, memoes enterred in Parkis's publisher under title "His pilgrims". French translation gived in XVIII century Bergeron. One of best is believed edition W. Rochhill "The journey of William Rubruck to the Eastern parts of the world", London, printed for the Hakluyt society, 1900.

In next publishing Beasley accommodated with memoes by valid notes: "Beazley C. R. The texts and versions of John de Plano Carpini and William de Rubruquis as printed for the first time by Hakluyt in 1598 together with some shorter pieces, London, 1903".

Finally setting the route of tour Carpini and Rubrucus  is believed Schmidt. Schmidt Fr. Uber Rubruk's Reise von 1253-1255//Zeitschritt der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1885, T. XX. C. 217-255.

Rubrucus memoes influenced on Roger Bacon. The "Comparison of Bacon's text Rubrucus text and also terminology, used to English scientists, lets to believe, that main material for denoted part "Opus Majus" was Rubrucus report". Bacon Roger. Opus Majus. Oxford: Edited by J. H. bridges. 1900. V. 1. C. 305.364 -374 ( Pars quarta geografia).

From scientifically-popular editions the most deserving attention Shastina  (3) had paid to the book by Olshki (Olschki Leonardo. "Guillone Boucher. A French Artist at the court of the Khans". Baltomore, 1946). As to Shastina "having studied medieval achievements, Olshki showed, what skill Giyom Bouche who built silber fontan in Munke-khan's yard was resided on the high level of contemporary to him technology".

3. John Plano de Carpini memoes and someone about it.

Heading in edition 1911 St-petersburg:

"John Plano de Carpini, Archbishop Antivary, history of mongals nominated by us as tatars. Introduction, translation and notes by A.I.Malein".


By "Everything, loyal Chrise doctrina, till which can reach genuine letters, John Plano de Carpini, brother minorit's order, the ablegate of apostolic see, ambasodor to tatars and to other nations of East, (wishes) act of grace Lord in genuine, of the fame of in future and triumphant victory over enemies of Lord and messrs our Jesus Chrise".

Carpini not in vain in the greeting wrote wishing victory over Jesus Chrise's enemies. In his book notable place borrow precaution before mongals and instructions in struggle with them. Directly into introduction it it does accent on that chief aim of his book it sees nonadmission the second invasion tatar in Europe.

His book is split into eight chapters in which is going about following:

1 - about the position of tatar's land,

2 - about their appearance,

3 - about religy and lords,

4 - about their characters,

5 - about beginning of their state (on this we shall stop apart),

6 - about war and military customs,

7 - about manner the conclusion of peace,

8 - how due to encounter tatar on war, last - about that regions, through which voyagers went.

In detail at Carpini, unlike Rubrucus , are described of meeting only with official persons, about mmetings with other human beings goes only reference a little. As to comparation Rubrucus memoes they are considerebly more brief.

Is thrown in eyes, what in the title of memoes is written word MONGAL. Avezac and Beasley believe (as to Malein) this form for slavonic both and consider them influence to Carpini on it interpreter of pole Benedykt.

IT'S INTERESTINGLY WILL NOTICE, what as to present grammar rules in р slavonic languages and to changes vowel at coorespondence of polish diftonge "a+ng" portrayed on letters how a with tallpasses on to Russian as "u", so polish sounding word MONGAL is close on in Russian language how MUGAL. This is enough closely to greec word MEGALION=GREAT.

It's characteristicly that tatars as to Carpini, trust in common god, but some adore idols. Also is characteristically that at them no conception about sin in christian sense, this is replaced by the complex of superstitions. Also is marked tatars are good soldiers and intolerantly belong among any manifestation of nonprofessionalism in this deal. Autohr of this article has sensation, what here memoes the image of the nation of-robber is created which gathered worth and terribles characters feachers.

From other nation seniors are mentioned at Carpini great prince Yaroslav, two son of Georgian tsar - Melik and David, of chiefs of numerous resigned nations, presented on imperor's Guyuk-khan incornation.

As to the motion of text Carpini assumes tangle in giraldic: in one place he writes that Baty is the most mighty from all princes, and he to is submited only to emperor, elsewhere he names other person named Ordu elder over Baty. PL

Here is and list of lands, submitted by tatars: "Quitai, Naimani, Solangi, Caraquitai, or black Quitai, Comans, Tumat, Voyrat, Coranits, Guyur, Sumangal, Merkits, Mekrits, Sariguyur, Bascart, namely Great Hungary, Cergis, Casmir, Sarracini(!!! - W. P.), Bisermini, Turkomani, Bileri, namely Great Bulgaris, Corola, Comoqui, Buritabet, Parositi, Casi, Iacobiti, Alani or Asi, Obesi or Georgiani, Nestirians, Armens, Congiti, Comani, Brutachi, which are jews, Mordvi, Turqui, Chozari, Samogedi, Parses(Perses) - (spelling in latin is given to in (2) - W. P.) Torks, Small India or Ethiopia, Cirkisi, Ruteni, Boldach, Sarti, and else much lands, names which we doesn't know".

Beside this list Carpini has also list nonsubmitted and struggled nations. It is considerably more brief and in him, in particular, is mentioned Great India.

Carpini expressed sympathy to Quitai, which "... are POGANS, but have Old and New Testament, and they have fathers lives descriptions, and monks, and at home done a similar to churches, where they are adjured in its time, and speak, what have christian holy... they have single god, respect messirs our Jesus Chrise, and trust in evig life, of BAPTISM AT THEM NO, respect and trust our books, love christian and do considerable alms...".

Else in the description of appearance Quitai how-that are not are mentioned their narrow eyes.

In the climate description there are no strong winds.

At Chozar description last, contrary to information from other sources, considered as christians.

Comments are unnecessary.

And finally. Memoes author requests all memoes reader in those memoes nothing write and nothing correct. Memoes autothors hence give no garantee of autentically of those memoes.


From publisher (mr. Malein):

"... in Russian was known only Plano Carpini and that in imperfect and antiquated translations (1795 and 1820), Rubrucus emerges ours for the first time. Translations of both writers was executed by A. I. Malein who previously issued in our library (i.e. the series of books - W. P.), Gerberstein and Corb. As to the text of edition we considered the necessary to append pictures, taked from 1-st thom publisher "Voyages fait principalement en Asie dans les XII, XIII, XIV et XV siecles. Par P. Bergeron. Tome premier. (A la Haye, 1735)."."

"... on Lion cathedral was deceided to send to khan missionairies, which were must to enter with hin in pacific relationships and turn him in christian faith. Thus pope Innocenty IV organized two mission in the head of which was monks: St.Francisc's order memeber Plano Carpini and St.Dominic's order member Ascellin. Particular comprehensitivity was differred list from Plano Carpini, which saw great khan  Kuyuk incornation..."

"... into the all description is scatterred of much shallow details as to geography and ethnoggraphy Russia, what does narrative Plano Carpini one of important sources for our geography..." Is wanted to add (W. P.) one of main for period mongol®-tatar yoke.

"... about life Plano Carpini knownly that, what it became St.Francisc follower due to properties of his speeches.... to memoes by Plano Carpini was liked by pope who made him st.Francisc's order general ..."

4. William Rubrucus memoes and someone about him.

Heading in edition 1911, St-petersburg: William de Rubrucus. "Journeys in Eastern countries".

At first word we give also to Malein. It's comments.

"... at sending Rubrucus received from king bible, of Blank (queen) presented him so calees Psatyr..." TP

"... route in cangle's Land compares with distance between Paris and Orlean (approximately 120 km - W. P.)." As to this Cangle's land this distance was overcomed for one day, with the replacement of horses on numerous post stations. Saying ahead, we shall say, what on contemporary geographic language those - West Kazakhstan and South Ural.

"... Ludovic IX wishes acknoledge true situation matters, really whether Sartakh, Baty's son get christianship."

"... so are clear information (!? - W. P.) communicated by Rubrucus about tatars so dark is one about his personal life. Self it surname gives in 11 different forms: De Rubruk, De Rubruck, De Rubruc, Rubroc, Risbrouc, Ruysbrouc, Risbroucke, Ruysbroeck, Risbrucke, and, the most generally, Rubruquis".

So unsteady information (as to various sources) is about Rubrucus origin.

What about his "Tour in East countries", all book is divided on 53 chapters, namely:

1 - beginning narrating and departure of Rubrucus,

2-10 - customs, of abode, characteers, courts of tatars,

11 - arrival in the country of barbarians,

12-48 - of journeys memo with description places, of population, encounterred on way (must say, to the conbtrary from Carpini, Rubrucus very in detail described meetings with usual people),

49 - their arrival to emperor Mengu-khan yard,

50-53 - the way back.

The interval of way from Baty's yard till emperors yard they went along with Baty.

INTERESTINGLY WILL NOTICE, what at Rubrucus  as to text motion terrible nomad nation is named tatars, and irrespective of them as to motion memoes nation Moal is steady mentioned which, according notations to (1), are Carpini's MONGALS. In such sounding name of this people letter G disappears, what characteristicly at transition of sounding from languages without diftongs to languages with such.

5. Geography Carpini's and Rubrucus journeys.

By the query of the detailed geography of tours was busy so book-wise, how D'Ohhson, Schmidt, Herbst. By the last considereble opening is believed revelation the rests of someone ancient town not far from mongol town Bayan-Khongor in 1947-1949 by the russian investigator of Asia Yadrintsev, which he considered to Caracorum's ruins.

Finally setting the route of tour Carpini and Rubrucus is believed Schmidt. Schmidt Fr. "Uber Rubruk's Reise von 1253'-1255"//Zeitschritt der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1885, T. XX. C. 217-255.

Map of tours Carpini and Rubrucus was for the first time appended to english edition "The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world 1253-55, as narrated by himself with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pleno de Carpine. Translated from latin and edited with an introducy notice, by Williiam Woodville Rockhill, London, MDCCC".

5.1. Geography of Carpini's tour

Carpini went from Lille and rode through Prague, Cracovia, Kiev, Kanev. After town Kanev leaving he made acquaintance with one of tatars molitary chiefs and onward as to text follows the description of he tour as to lands Gold Orda, then newappeared mongol-tatar states. At reading memoranda in this place is visible his way along Azov sea coast. After this he comes in Cangit's land (as to D`Ohhson, whose opinion was considerable by at adversaria for malein's edetion writing, this people lived near Azov sea North shores), through which they ride approximately month.

In the process of his tour Carpini was is presented to khan Baty, Carpini ahs negotiation with him, onward is present by incornation of emperor Guyuk-khan, what is characteristicly, in his field rate which was named Syr-Orda, of " only half day distance to Caracaron, in which we were not (!!! - W. P.)".

In the tour process are given othe ample description of nations, villages (namad places) which approximately you may localize in Down Volga, North Kazakhstan, Middle Asia.

Author about site Syr-Orda cannot what-or concrete to say, nd gives opportunity to think on this theme turkish language specialists. Alone, he conveys disagreement with already above-mentioned dwarf D`Ohhson, what allegedly this Syr-Orda necessary to looking for in Transbaikal (1, comments).

In the traditional version of history is believed, that in concerning the short gap of time from "conquest Caucas mongols" till Gold Orda creation, i.e. West ulus separation from the rest of the state, existed so called Mongol empire, later Gold Orda had from it vasal dependency. The unlikeliness of similar reasonings you may sustain by methods of physical-geographical study.

About state like as a structure is correctly to say then, when occurs the regular collecting of tribute, more or less appeared the group of persons occupied by military employment and etc. It's possible to say about legislation and state capability to abrupt his infriengement, but this is upon examination of the early states is nonprincipal. In the circumstances of nomadic nations self tribute gathering alone was deal rather difficult in comparison with such in the circumstances people still setled, even at provision, that people ( tribe) was firstly submitted.

Namely from the point of view foregoing is doubtly the existence of longtimed ancientstate structures on enough extensive territories (example: nonstability arabic caliphate). In our case we have deal with Baikal Mongolia, by remote wildernesses, halfdessrts and Sayan and Altai mountains form Volga Gold Orda.

5.2. Geography of Rubrucus tours.

It in geografical plan is someone richer then Carpini's tour, in journey memoes is also enumerated of much nations, cities, rivers and etc. Is mentioned in him in particular Caspian see, while in those moment one from co-travellers Rubrucus  says him that they ride parallel to the shore of this sea (1, page. 104). In further distinctly described "turnaround to south" is described, distinctly are mentioned of river, lost in wilderness, what is very similar to the painting of modern stage og rivers Syrdaria and Amudaria which flows to shallowing Aral sea. They goes through land, where are mains tataro-mongol chiefs. "This land beforetime was named Organum, now is occupated by turkomans. After they to the East there are tanguts, after those tanguts are tibeties, and to north querkisi". The author of this article identifies hereunder querkisi with contemporary kirgiz and dared speaks, that Caracaron-Caracorum at Carpini will localize as to the text of memoes in Middle Asia.

5.3. Several words about reflacting journey memoranda on geographic map.

In Almati 1993 the edition of the memoes is placed schemat both tours on geografical(r)(c) map. In edition 1911г. publisher A.I. Malein excuses before readers that he couldn't to bestow composed by englishman Willianm Rockhill map the-scheme of tour that no less those map in one of copies behaved in spite of everything is situated in Russian library and in copy stored in historical library.

The scheme of tour Carpini into all publishings is so: France - Prague - Cracow - Kiev - Canev - the coast of Sea of Azov - ferry through Volga near Camyshin - west Kazakhstan - the south Kazakhstan (of arrow-directories route a little touches Syrdaria) - Talas - south Tian-Shan mountings - river Ili crossing near Almaty - (lake Balkhash is to left ) - crossing mongol Altai - suburbs of Caracorum (not far from modern Mongol towns Bayan-Khongor and Arbai-Here), approximately to 300 km westward from Ulan bator). He goes back by the same way.

The scheme of Rubrucus tour into all publishings is so: Middle east - Constantinopol - Crimea - Down Don - crossing through Volga not far fron Camyshin, and onward it almost completely coincides with scheme tours Carpini. Back he rides approximately by this one way cross Volga, descends till mouth, rides along Caspian sea till Arax, ascends go along Arax and through Armenia he again is on Middle east in one of cruisade princelands.

Its views strange that region of Yenisei uppers (Khacasia and Tuva) is named Kerkits, territory of present Sintszian-uygur autonomous region in China is named Moal (comments see above), and Tian-Shan mountains named as Monte Caucasi.

Startles that from mentioned of approximately ten borough East Volga and Yaik was not of neither problems with search on map only town Talas, above-mentioned at Rubrucus . Now this is region center in Kirgisia. Only here is problem he costs highly in mountains, and mow the arterial avenue passes approximately with hundred kilometres from it by step.

Startles more is that the most way which made travellers passes through waterless districts and rarelypopulated regions of South and West Kazakhstan, to the east districts of China and present Mongolia. We shall quit this is without cmments, because there a lot of those by the text.

6. Merry places in Rubrucus memoes.

In this part of article author tried on the founding of the reference of some elements of material culture and someone of various details in memoes to do some conclusions. As a rule, after detailed acquaintance and analysis conclusions you may was to do merry.

In Carpini's memoes is direct warnnig about eventual nonauthentically example. At Rubrucus  so direct warning  вт(r)р has not find but found much other interesting.

Rubrucusус (by Shastina, 3), of "strictly following rules of monk order monorits, he always went barefoot, what was no doubts difficultly in winter cold of Mongolia. Some part of way he went by feet". Comments are unnecessary, if to allow for, what as to х(r)ду of narrative repeatedly is mentioned snowfalling.

Memoes William  de Rubrucus  is rich of different descriptions considerably in larger degree, than John  Plano de Carpini memoes. There are considerably more obvious nontrue inventions and the fruits of stormy fantasy. We shall stop in brief on some of them.

At the beginning memoes Rubrucus  is mentioned year their writing 1253. BUT scoring from christmas began only beginning from the middles of XVI century. Till this moment those way of year scoring was not popular. Hence we can conclude: before broad (as to medieval conceptions) readership was not the manuscript of XIII century, how about herself spoke artful popularizators,   considerably late variant, last not of through one hand scribers (and, is possible, and co-authors).

Further as by text he gives very comprehensive description of some subjects material tatar's culture . We shall stop on them in more detail.

At preparing to tour Rubrucusус, man from the lands of nations still settled, for the first time made acquaintance life of people nomads. His curiosity, conspicuously, was disappointed, when he actuality faced usual summer camp life and in winter by life in usual vollages. Crimea and volga tatar which was really (not in excited imagination) was visited by Rubrucus, conspicuously even then situation with mode of life was so. About so calles yurts which are the abodes of nomad nations he knew only by heering, because in its memoes wrote about them following (are citated only the most bright are characteristic places):

"Home... they set on wheels from weaves branches, as beams are used serve canes, closing one to another to up in the type of small wheel, from which ascends neck... And they do similar abodes so larger, what that have THIRTY FEET breadth. I measured once breadth between the scents of one cart, in TWENTY feet, and when home was on cart, he of put out the wheel at least of five feet with that and with other side... I scoerd one cart was transported by TVENTY TWO bull hauling home, eleven in foremost array and else eleven in rear. The Cart axis was value with the mast of ship..." Evidently is that in conditions of step absence or roads such distances between wheels in axes no one cart master make has not become. At all in condition of no roads any transport unit must to stand a test on natural nonplains. So here is, at such distances beetween wheels axis attachmentTP to wheel became bad in several hours. In additon aside from it... "wheels are make of rods".

Further. By describing palace in Caracorum, tatar capital, is mentioned silver fontane built captives by french master as to surname Bouche. Twice a year during great holidats from those fontane were poured from four flows of 4 different beverage: kumys, honey, beer and wine. Else on fomtan top fontane stand statue in the form man with pipe, and in necessary moment pipe brought to mouth and from those statue and issued what-that sounds. In cellar under this statue resided someone this fontan management place.

But for that, in order during larger celebrations drinks could gently circulate as to route cellar - pipe - opening fontane, from which beverages poured out - bottom fontane - cellar, was necessary to have as a minimum pump. Then and wherein he have not know. (Here, if i am mistaken large specilaist in pomp technique can me correct).

Else characteristicly is that what by с the rich description of peace bestial with the reference of "savage asses", "savage bulls", there is the absence of flora description. Into something real and remind, there are PALMS. Comments are extra.

Else characteristicly is what as to the motion of memoes neither to time was not was described   how travellers during journeys and crossing in endless steps had having a sleep. To have a night in steppe in winter under naked sky is not usual matter perilous.

At tour through cangle land and other lands is mentioned, what shift of horses arose several times in day, and per one day on a balance was overcomed distance equals so distance between Paris and Orlean (approximately 150 km - W. P.). At such distances the shift of horses must arise minimum onec per day. Causes the doubts fact, what in XIII century exists state structure which could satisty work of post stations which were situated each 30-40 km, over 5 thousand kilometres from Volga till Baikal, in accounting that more of half denoted ways on maps - those dry steppes and halfdessrts, where usual natural task of life is serious problem.

Conclusions directly from memoes Carpini and Rubrucus  following:

As to text journey memoes of Rubrucus and Carpini it is impossible to do any strong conclusions precise localization of their tours. In relation to description of different places and nations, above-mentioned in their memoes that they, likely, were handed over form words or otherwise. And reiterating AS TO ROUTE, of THOSE ON MAP TOURS CARPINI AND RUBRUCUS IN (3) WENT NEITHER CARPINI, NEITHER RUBRUCUS .

7. Versions about the beginnings of mongol power.

History and prehistory beginning mongol conquests by Carpini and by Rubrucusу, of accession to power Khingiz-Dschingiz-khan a little coincide. In particular, and as to Carpini, and as to Rubrucus, Dschingizkhan was at first thiefly shepherd, then he managed to capture power, with his troops he fought with the troops of many nations, in particular, with Quitai-scatai-caaracatai, (truth the sucsess of Dschingizkhan  in these battles as to Carpini is not confirms by Rubrucus), and as to Carpini, and as to Rubrucus, Dschingiz-khan fights with John  Presbitter's troops (and again with incomprehensible after comparasion two sources by success). What is else anecdoticly, John Presbitter at first was shepherd too.

There are also problems with detection the degrees of similarity various mongol chiefs: as to Carpini Mengu-khan (Mongol imperor at the moment of arrival to him Rubrucus delegation) is Dschingiz-khan's grandson, as to Rubrucus he is son.

To the greatest regret according most popular and dominating in historic science versions, grunted on nonocritical approach to investigated memoes how to strictly documentary source and subsequent next noncorrect geografical localizations the source of tataro-mongol state was claimed contemporary Mongolia. At the formation of this version of memo John Plano de Carpini became source number one, and in "World history" began mongol conquests are given strongly according memoes Carpini's. This version how already accepted for basis, was treated by other historians, for example, by Gumilov (see it "Ancient Rus and great steppe").

But there of and other points of view, in particularly medieval chronist. In particular, by "Notes of hungary missioners" (2), the source of tataro-mongol conquests is Gotia, (in her traditional localization in North Black sea steppes), and at the reference of chief names neither Dschingiz-khan, neither Baty are mentioned.

As to records in Alberic's chronicle from three fontans abbey in the head of tataro-mongol troops was John Presvitter, or king David(3). Those agadic personges emerge too on pages of other chronicles, for example, Mathiew from Paris chronicle(3). There Aare neither Baty, neither Dschingizkhan.


By these lines in 1996 year was finished the first editorial office of article. Now on yard year 1998, and to author is wanted to notice, what very interesting version about tours Carpini and Rubrucus sad our contemporaries Dmitry Kaluzhny and Sergei Walanski on the leaves of open series "Chronotron"(4).


1. Tours in East countries. St-petersburg, publishers Malein's, 1911.

2. S. A. Anninski. The news of hungary missionairies XIII-XIV centuries about tatars in East Europe. In book "Historical Archive", The institute of history academy of sciencies USSR, publisher AN USSR. M.-St-petersburg, 1940.

3. The tours of in eastern countries 1993, Almaty, Gylym. Introduction article by N. Shastina.

4. S.I.Walanski, D.V.Kaluzhny. Chronotron. M.Lean-craft 1998

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