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In Theophanus chronicle is going about two eclipses (quotation as to (1), p.352, it has number VIII in second chapter).

Morozov writes about this so (by quotation greec text is omited and translation to English is given):

"In Theophanus chronography dead in Samofrakis in 817(5), (6, 52) is told :

"In this year (in 338, writed instead of 346) was held solar eclipse, so even stars on sky was visible day 6 month Daisi in 3-rd hour (from Sun rising, both notaion by Morozov)"

And on the next (39-rd) page is said that

"in this (339) year again was held solar eclipse in the second hour (from sun rising) in Sunday"

But in 339 was noone solar eclipse on the Medditerrae sea coast. Considering Daisi as june we find that closest eclipse was 4 june 262, going through Africa and by it was not visible stars in Europe and Egypt: they are visible only by complete eclipse. And after 339 was several passing?? (the question signs are of author).

The first firm mentioned by Theophanus eclipse pares Petavius considered to 6 june 346, scoring moving 8 years and the second to 9 october 348, with considering of moving in 9 years, because only this last was in "Sun day" in 1h. 24m. after Sun rising with phase for Bisantium 8"3. Besides this in Sunday was held else one solar eclipse 28 may 355 in 3-th hour form Sun rising too but in year before was not complete solar eclipse and was only in 6 years before, rinforming 4 april 349 with maximum phase 11"5 in Candigier and Messapotomia. Hence we must stop first of all on two eclipses as Petavius supposing chronology moving on 8-9 years....

.... noone eclipse was from our era began till our days".

Further there is analisys of different source interdependence.

Daisi month is identify by Morozov with june.

This isn't complete correct. Here isn't so easy as seemed to Morozov. And we shall go further then Morozov and we shall recognize about what Daisi can be go. Here Klimishin and his "Calendar and chronology"(2) will help us.

If him believe among numerous ancient greec calendars most popular was athens and macedon moon-solar calendars. According one group of data, ancient greecs began year in winter or summer Sunstaging, by other they used so called octaetherids: 8-years cycle with insertion of two or three extra moon monthes.

According (2), p.124, to macedon month Desios corresponds may. In generak case is necessary to consider all beginnings of month Desios from beginning of may till beginning of june, from 1 May to 1 June.

But is possible any other. Is eventually that month Desios was by rewriting of manuscripts was considered as Dios, which aproximately corresponds to julian october and begin of which can be from 1 october till 1 november.

Hence we obtain problem:

- one from solar eclipses was visible from Constantinopol aproximately in two hours after Sun rising 6 Daisi (or Dios)

- the second was in next after it year (or in two years) in sunday.

We shall find all pairs of eclips from those observing from Athens and Constantinopol even a little satisfying the problem conditions. In particalarly we rather arbitrary apply approach to the query of eclipse phases fixing even eclipse only calculated and non visible due to small phases.

The range of considered years was from 45 BC till 1200 AD (It was choosed from consideration that before julian calendar conception of sunday hadn't sense so appeared down chronological frontier).

It we consider that according someone information during Nicea cathedral was decide to omit three days from calendar (if believe (1) with refference to (3) and (4)) and so sunday mentioned in source becames Wednesday calculated according canon.

We show such eclipses observed from Constantinopol.

The first column is year/month/day, second one is day of week, third is UT of maximum, forth is phase, fifth is time of Sun rising, six is amount of hours from dawn.
-009/06/30 Fr 10:33 0.839 02:40 08:33
-008/06/19 We 02:36 0.781 02:40 00:15
0212/08/14 Fr 05:26 0.945 03:20 02:26
0218/10/07 We 06:13 0.937 02:50 03:25
0239/08/16 Fr 14:34 0.678 03:20 11:34
0240/08/05 We 04:29 0.920 03:10 01:19
0292/05/04 We 06:28 0.753 03:10 03:18
0293/09/17 Su 14:30 0.661 04:00 10:30
0346/06/06 Fr 04:23 0.843 02:40 01:40
0348/10/09 Su 05:45 0.677 04:30 01:15
0538/02/15 Mo 08:37 0.921 05:15 03:22
0540/06/20 We 08:19 0.940 02:40 05:30
0550/11/24 Th 08:21 0.976 05:20 03:00
0551/05/21 Su 11:31 0.196 02:50 09:00
0590/10/04 We 11:42 0.931 04:15 09:42
0592/03/19 We 09:21 0.949 04:20 05:01
0968/12/22 Tu 09:22 1.031 05:50 04:30
0970/05/08 Su 04:32 0.967 03:30 01:00
1174/11/26 Tu 05:29 0.898 05:20 00:09
1176/04/11 Su 04:45 0.866 03:40 01:00
1187/09/04 Fr 11:32 0.909 03:40 07:50
1191/06/23 Su 12:12 0.814 02:40 09:30
From showed in table data is following that there ideal coinciding with chronicle text gives noone eclipse pair. If consider that ideal time scoring wasn't is that times so we shall give advantage to pairs in which second eclipse held in earlier hours.

From this viewpoint more eventual is namely downwrited pair:
590/10/04 We 11:42 0.931 04:15 09:42
592/03/19 We 09:21 0.949 04:20 05:01
It has advantage in comparasion Petavius's one from the next viewpoints:

1. Dates 590/10/04 and 592/03/19 are the dates from two consequented one after other years (without year between because year in Bisantia was begined in september and last compilator could be chiefed by this) in difference from dates 346/06/06 and 348/10/09, which in each one case aren't dates from years one after other.

2. Time of day of second eclipse in this pair is earlier the first eclipse one (in Petavius's pair this time is earlier too but no obviously)

3. One and another eclipse was clare observed from Constantinopol, because both had rather big phases in difference from the second eclipse from the Petavius's pair 348/10/09 which(r) had in Constantinopol phase 0.667 and couldn't be noticeble with nonmissiled eye.

From this article we can conclude that Theophanus chronicle is manylayers document in which chronology is teared away from text.

2. Morozov in (1) on p. 335 in chapter  I-XIX write about once more eclipse mentined in Theophan (5, p. 268), (6, 78):

"By his (Maurici) exodus to Gebdomon was held solar eclipse and unwaiting gusts of wind"

According to tradition Eastroma emperor Maurici governed during 21 years form 582 to 602 AD. Let's write all eclipses which was visible from Constantinopol in his governing years in table 3.

Table 3.
  590/10/04 11:42  0.931
  592/03/19 09:21  0.949
  601/03/10 08:11  0.769

Eventually is going about first among three ecipses. About this eclipse is going about in Grerori Turensis, Theophilacti Simocattae, Anastasii Bibliothecari, Zonaras in world's chronicle.


1. Morozov N.A. Christ. Volume 4. Moscow. Craft-Lean, 1998
2. I.A.Klimishin "Calendar and chronology" (In Russian: Kalendar' i khronologiya) Moscow. Nauka 1985
3. Medler I.G. "About calendar's reform" - MNP Magazine, 1854, p.121, January., part. VI, p.9
4. Khlustin B.M. Astronimy fir sailors. 4-th publisher. - Leningrad. 1939
5. Theophanis Chornographia, publ. de-Boor, 1883, Vol.1 p.38

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